ارزیابی دورگ‌گیری بین و درون‌گونه‌ای کلن‌های صنوبر Populus nigra و P. deltoides

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار پژوهش،مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 کارشناس محقق پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

10.22124/jms.2021.5285

چکیده

تحقیق حاضر با هدف استفاده از توانمندی ارقام پر محصول معرفی­شده برای تولید دورگ‌های جدید و ارزیابی صفات مورفولوژیک و آناتومیک نهال‌های دورگ بین­گونه‌ای P. nigra و P. deltoides انجام شد. در پروژه حاضر از پایه‌های نر و ماده کلن‌‌های برتر صنوبر نیگرا و دلتوئیدس که به لحاظ عملکرد تولید چوب و کیفیت تنه مناسبT عملکرد مناسبی داشته و به بخش اجرا معرفی شده‌اند، استفاده شد. در زمستان 97 جوانه‌های حامل گل از شاخه‌های گلدار پایه مــاده به­طول حدود 60 الی 100 سانتی‌متر از شاخه‌های انتهایی درخت جدا و در گلدان‌های 20 لیتری حاوی مخلوط خاک، ماسه و کود دامی کاشته شدند. برای تهیه دانه گرده، تعداد کافی از شاخه‌های گل‌دار از شاخه درخت نر هر یک از گونه‌های P. nigra و P. Deltoids جدا و در داخل ظرف آب قرار داده شده و با بازشدن شاتون‌های گل نر، گرده‌ها جمع‌آوری شدند. عمل گرده‌افشانی به‌وسیله قلموی آغشته به گرده به‌صورت گرد و غبار انجام شد. پس از رسیدگی کامل کپسول‌ها، خوشه‌ها (کاتکین) جمع‌آوری شده و تمامی کپسول‌های دورگ و آزاد­گرده‌افشان سترون شده به‌صورت شکاف داده­شده در شرایط محیط کشت MS½ فاقـد هورمون کشت شدند. گیاهچه‌های تولیدشــده در اندازه بلندتر از ۱ تا ۲ سانتی‌متری به جی‌فی‌پات با مخلوطی از پرلیت و پیت‌ماس و ماسه منتقل و در گلخانه ‌نگهداری شدند و مشخصه‌های درصد آلودگی و ارتفاع گیاهچه‌های درون شیشه و تعداد گیاهچه‌های منتقل­شده به جی‌فی‌پات یادداشت شد. پس از سازگاری تدریجی، نهال‌های دورگ به گلدان‌های بزرگ انتقال یافتند و پس از دو سال بر اساس صفات کمی مانند ارتفاع، قطر یقه، شاخه و ‌مشخصه‌های کمی و آناتومی برگ مورد ارزیابی‌ قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که بیش­ترین ارتفاع شاتون، تعداد و وزن کپسول در تلاقی آزاد گرده‌افشان وجود داشت. تعداد 28 نتاج از تلاقی‌های مختلف صنوبر به‌دست آمد. بیش­ترین ارتفاع ساقه در تلاقی‌های PD♀xPS♂ (P. deltoides Marquette x P. deltoidesSamsun) و PD♀xPB♂ (P. deltoidesMarquette x P. nigra betulifolia17/13) و بیش­ترین زاویه شاخه، سطح برگ و سطح ویژه برگ در تلاقی آزادگرده‌افشان PD♀ (P. deltoidesMarquette) مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of inter and intra-specific hybridization of clones of Populus nigraand P. deltoides

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Ahmadloo 1
  • Abbas Ghamari Zare 2
  • Mohsen Calagari 2
  • Azadeh Salehi 1
  • Mahdiyeh Salehi Vajdeh Nazari 3
1 Assistant Professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
3 Research Expert, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to use the potential of productive cultivars to produce new hybrids and to evaluate the morphological and anatomical traits of hybrid seedlings between P. nigra and P. deltoides.In the present project, the male and female bases of the superior clones of Populus nigra and Populus deltoides were used, which had a high performance in terms of wood production and proper trunk quality, and were introduced to the implementation department. In winter 2018, the flowering branches of the base material with flower-bearing buds about 60–100 cm in length were collected from the end branches of the tree and planted in 20 litre plastic pots consisting of mixture of soil, sand and well-rotted cattle manure. To prepare pollen grains, a sufficient number of flowering branches were separated from the male branches of each of P. nigra and P. deltoides species and placed in a container of water and the pollen was collected by opening the male flower catkins.Pollination was achieved by lightly dusting the receptive flowers with a camel-hair brush. Catkins were collected from the branches when capsules mature and all of sterilized hybrid and open pollination capsules were cultured on Half-MS medium without hormone in the form of splitting. Produced plantlets taller than 1 to 2 cm in size were transferred to jiffypots with a mixture of sterilized perlite and peat moss and sand and kept in greenhouse and the characteristics of the percentage of contamination, height of plantlets and the number of plantlets transferred to jiffypots were recorded. The hybrid seedlings were transferred to large pots after gradual adaptation, and then they were evaluated based on quantitative traits such as height, collar diameter, branch and quantitative characteristics and anatomy of leaves after two years. The results showed that the highest catkins height, number and weight of capsules were in open pollinated cross. A total of 28 progeny were obtained from Populus different crossings. The highest stem height in crosses of PD♀xPS♂ (P. deltoides Marquette x P. deltoides Samsun) and PD♀xPB♂ (P. deltoides Marquette x P. nigra betulifolia 17/13), the maximum branch angle, leaf area and specific leaf area in open pollinated cross of PD♀ (P. deltoides Marquette) was observed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Capsule
  • Culture medium
  • Heritability
  • Hybridization
  • Populus
  • seedling
Al Afas, N., Marron, N. and Ceulemans, R. 2007. Variability in Populus leaf anatomy and morphology in relation to canopy position, biomass production and varietal taxon. Annals of Forest Science, 64(5): 521-532. (Journal) Alimohamadi, A., Asadi, F. and TabaieAghdaei, S.R. 2015. Evaluation of growth and morphological parameters in two poplar species (P. nigra L. and P. alba L.) to tree growth reveal traits related to productivity (case study in Kermanshah, Zanjan and Esfahan provinces). Ecology of Iranian Forests, 3(5): 31-41. (In Persian)(Journal) Alimohammadi, A. Asadi, F. Adeli, E., Tabaei-Aghdaei, S.R. and Mataji, A. 2009. Using morphological traits for identification of Populus nigra stands in Kermanshah and Zanjan provinces of Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 17(3): 369-381. (In Persian)(Journal) Assadi, F., Mirzai – Nodushan, H., Modirrahmati, A.R. and Naderi - Shahab‎, M.A. 2004. Identification of Poplar clones, using morphological markers. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 12(2): 267-300. (In Persian)(Journal) Calagari, M., Mirzaie-Nodoushan, H., Asadi, F. and Salehi Shanjani, P. 2017. Evaluation of progenies of sexual reproduction of Populus euphratica provenances using leaf morphology and Isoenzyme markers. Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research, 25(2): 247-258. (In Persian)(Journal) Casson, S. and Gray, J.E. 2008. Influence of environmental factors on stomatal development. New Phytologist, 178(1): 9–23. (Journal) Chauhan, N., Negi, M.S., Sabharwal, V., Khurana, D.K. and Lakshmikumaran, M. 2004. Screening inter-specific hybrids of Populus (P. ciliate×maximowiczii) using markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 108(5): 951- 957. (Journal) Chen, H.Y.H., Klinka, K. and Kayahara, G.J. 1996. Effects of light on growth, crown architecture, and specific leaf area for naturally established Pinus contorta var. latifolia and Pseudotsugameuziesii var. glauca saplings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 26(7): 1149-1157. (Journal) Čortan, D., Vilotić, D., Šijačić-Nikolić, M. and Miljković, D. 2017. Leaf stomatal traits variation within and among black poplar native populations in Serbia. Bosque, 38(2): 337-345. (Journal) Covarelli, L., Beccari, G., Tosi, L. and Fabre, B. 2013. Three-year investigations on leaf rust of poplar cultivated for biomass production in Umbria, Central Italy. Biomass Bioenergy, 49: 315-322. (Journal) Dim, G., Benea, V.I. and Coros, A.M. 1999. Phenotypical traits of the native poplar genetic resources. 2 thInternational poplar symposium, Program with abstracts, 13-17 September, Orlean, France.pp: 99. (Conference) Emam, M. 2001. Comparison of anatomic characteristics between in vitro cultured plantlets and naturally grown parental plants in Populus cuspica. Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant, Breeding and Genetic research, 6(1): 103-113. (In Persian)(Journal) FAO, 1979. Internatinal Poplar Commission. Poplar and willows in wood production and land use. FAO forestry Series 10. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. (Handbook) Ghasemi, R. and Modir Rahmati, A.R. 2003. Investigation on adaptability and wood production of different poplar clones (closed crown) in Karaj City.Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research. 11(3): 359-390. (In Persian)(Journal) Givnish, T.J. 1988. Adaptation to sun and shade: a whole-plant perspective. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 15(2): 63-92. (Journal) Heinze, B. 2008. Genetic traces of cultivated hybrid poplars in the offspring of native Populus nigra in Austria. Preslia, 80(4): 365–374. (Journal) Hemati, A. and Modir Rahmati, A.R. 1998. Poplar natural hybrids in experimental nurseries. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 1(1): 143-169. (In Persian)(Journal) Kordalivand, A., Payamnoor, V., Sattarian, A. and Mohammadi, J. 2015. Different types of leaf stomata in genus Betula L. in Iran. Journal of Wood and Forest Science and Technology, 22(2): 55-73. (In Persian)(Journal) Kremer, A., Dupouey, J.L., Deans, D., Cottrell, J., Csaikl, U., Finkeldy, R., Espinel, S., Jensen, J., kleinschmit, J., VanDam, B., Tutkova, M., Munro, R.C., Steinhoff, S. and Badeau, V. 2002. Leaf morphological differentiation between Quercus robur and Quercus petraea in stable across western European mixed Oak stands. Annals of Forest Science, 59(7): 777-787. (Journal) Lopez, D.H., Sierra, U.R. and Cristobal, M.D. 2004. A comparison of isozyme and morphological markers to assess the within population variation in small populations of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) in Spain. SilvaeGenetica, 53(5-6): 227-233. (Journal) Marron, N., Dillen, S.Y. and Ceulemans, R. 2007. Evaluation of leaf traits for indirect selection of high yielding poplar hybrids. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 61(2): 103-116. (Journal) Michel, M.F., VillaR, M., Point, J. and Teissier, E. 1989. Recent developments in INRA Poplar improvement programme. In: Recent developments in Poplar selection and propagation technique. Proceedings of IUFRO meetings working party, 2-6October, Hann Munden, France.pp: 11. (Conference) Mohrdiek, O. 1979. Progeny Tests with Leucepoplars in Germany: Crossings Within and Between Species and Backcrossings. Wiedebusch, Hamburg. (Book) Niinemets, Ü., Al Afas, N., Cescatti, A., Pellis, A. and Ceulemans, R. 2004. Petiole length and biomass investment in support modify light-interception efficiency in dense poplar plantations. Tree Physiology, 24(2): 141–154. (Journal) Nilson, S.E. and Assmann, S.M. 2007. The control of transpiration insights from Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 143(1): 19-27. (Journal) Orlović, S., Guzina, V., Krstić, B. and Merkulov, L.J. 1998. Genetic variability in anatomical, physiological and growth characteristics of hybrid poplar (Populus x euramericanaDode (Guinier)) and eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoidesBartr.) clones. SilvaeGenetica, 47(4): 183-190. (Journal) Pearce, D.W., Millard, S., Bray, D.F. and Rood, S.B. 2005. Stomatal characteristics of riparian poplar species in a semi-arid environment. Tree Physiology, 26(2): 211-218. (Journal) Rae, A.M., Robinson, K.M., Street, N.R. and Taylor, G. 2004. Morphological and physiological traits influencing biomass productivity in short-rotation coppice poplar. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34(7): 1488–1498. (Journal) Reich, P.B. 1984. Leaf stomatal density and diffusive conductance in three amphistomatous hybrid poplar cultivars. New Phytologist, 98(2): 231–239. (Journal) Shariat, A., Mirzaie-Nodoushan, H., Ghamarri-Zare, A. and Sangtarash, M.H. 2001. Investigation of relationship between and within species of annual medics based on morphological characteristics. Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant, Breeding and Genetic research, 7(1): 81-97. (In Persian)(Journal) Tavousi Rad, F., GhamariZare, A., Mirzaie-Nodoushan, H. and Usefifard, M. 2017. Evaluation of poplar inter-specific progenies based on their morphologic and micromorphologic traits. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 24(4): 675-686. (In Persian)(Journal) Toplu, E. 2005. Breeding and conservation of black poplar (Populus nigra) gene resources in Turkey. Unasylva, 221(56): 26-30. (Journal) Wolf, H. and Brandt, R. 1995. Growth and quality of intra-specific aspen Populus tremula L. progenies. SilvaeGenetica, 44(5/6): 319-325. (Journal) Zhu, S., Cao, Y.Z., Jiang, C., Tan, B.Y., Wang, Z., Feng, S., Zhang, L., Su, X.H., Brejova, B., Vinar, T., Xu, M., Wang, M.X., Zhang, S.G., Huang, M.R., Wu, R. and Zhou, Y. 2012. Sequencing the genome of Marssoninabrunnea reveals fungus-poplar co-evolution. BMC Genomics, 13:382. (Journal)