بررسی ترکیبات و اثرات ضدقارچی اسانس‌های توده‌های بذری بومی زیره سبز روی قارچ‌های بذرزاد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

موسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

بذر یکی از مهم­ترین نهاده­های تولیدات کشاورزی است که کیفیت و سلامت آن می­تواند تحت تاثیر قارچ‌های بذرزاد قرار بگیرد. هدف از این مطالعه شناسایی قارچ‌های بذرزاد و تاثیر آن­ها روی شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی و بنیه توده‌های بذری بومی زیره سبز و همچنین ارزیابی اثرات اسانس­ها و ترکیبات تشکیل‌دهنده اسانس­های این توده‌های بذری روی قارچ­های بذرزاد جداسازی شده می­باشد. به­منظور شناسایی قارچ‌های بذرزاد توده‌های بذری زیره سبز از بذور تولیدی مزارع مشهد، فریمان، کاشمر و قوچان در استان خراسان رضوی بر اساس ضوابط انجمن بین­المللی آزمون بذر نمونه­برداری شد. جدایه‌های قارچی پس از جداسازی و خالص‌سازی، بر اساس ویژگی‌های ریخت‌شناختی و مولکولی شناسایی شدند. همچنین پتانسیل بیماری­زایی و قدرت تهاجم جدایه­ها روی گیاهچه بررسی شد. در مجموع 12 جدایه بر اساس ویژگی‌های ریخت‌شناسی و مولکولی که متعلق به گونه‌های Fusarium oxysporum و F. solani شناسایی شدند. نتایج آزمون جوانه‌زنی استاندارد نشان داد که در میان توده‌های بذری مورد بررسی اختلاف معنی‌داری در شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی و بنیه وجود دارد. آلودگی بذر به قارچ‌های بذرزاد به‌طور قابل‌توجهی روی شاخص‌های بنیه و جوانه‌زنی بذر تأثیر گذاشته و موجب کاهش کیفیت و سلامت بذور می‌شوند. نتایج نشان داد که بیش­ترین شاخص‌های بنیه و جوانه‌زنی در توده بذری فریمان و پس از آن به­ترتیب در توده­های بذری کاشمر، قوچان و مشهد مشاهده شد. نتایج آزمون بیماری­زایی نشان داد که حدود 7/41 درصد جدایه‌ها بیماری­زا و 3/58 درصد جدایه‌های بیماری­زا نبودند. همچنین میزان بیماری­زایی و قدرت تهاجم جدایه‌های مختلف گونه‌های Fusarium متفاوت بود. در ادامه این پژوهش ضمن اسانس­گیری به­روش تقطیر با آب به­کمک دستگاه کلونجر، ترکیبات تشکیل­دهنده این اسانس­ها با استفاده از کروماتوگرافی گازی - طیف سنجی جرمی شناسایی شدند. ترکیبات اصلی شناسایی­شده اسانس شامل بتا-پینن، ﭘﯽ-ﺳﯿﻤﻦ، گاما-ترپینن، ﺗﺮﭘﻴﻨﻦ-4-ال و کومین­آلدهید بودند. نتایج نشان داد که ترکیبات آلفا-پینن، سابینن، بتا-پینن، میرسن، ﮔﺎما-ترپینن، بتا-فارنسن و کاروتول دارای اثرات ضد قارچی علیه جدایه­های F. oxysporum بودند. اثرات هم­افزایی ترکیبات اصلی بازدارنده اسانس­ها نشان داد که ترکیب ﺗﺮﭘﻴﻨﻦ-4-ال با بتا-پینن موجب فعالیت سینرژیستی و ترکیب ﺗﺮﭘﻴﻨﻦ-4-ال با ﮔﺎما-ترپینن و همچنین ترکیب بتا-پینن و ﮔﺎما-ترپینن موجب فعالیت افزایشی علیه جدایه­هایF. oxysporum شدند. این اولین گزارش در مورد تاثیر ترکیبات اسانس­های توده‌های بذری بومی زیره سبز روی قارچ­های بذرزاد جداسازی از همان بذور می­باشد. یافته­های این پژوهش نشان داد که مقدار و حتی نوع ترکیبات تشکیل­دهنده اسانس­های توده­های بذری زیره سبز متفاوت است و می­تواند روی فراوانی قارچ­های بذرزاد و میزان بیماری­زایی آن­ها تاثیر بگذارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of constituents and antifungal effects of essential oils of native cumin seed populations on seed-borne fungi

نویسنده [English]

  • Nima Khaledi
Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The seed is one of the most important inputs of agricultural products that its quality and health can be affected by seed-borne fungi. The aim of this study was to identify the seed-borne fungi and their effect on germination and vigor indices of native cumin seed populations and also to evaluate the effects of essential oils and constituents of essential oils these seed populations on seed-borne fungi isolated. In order to identify of seed-borne fungi of cumin seed populations from seeds produced in fields of Mashhad, Fariman, Kashmar and Quchan in Khorasan Razavi province were sampled according to the International Rules for Seed Testing (ISTA). After isolation and purification, fungal isolates were identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. Also, pathogenicity potential and the aggressiveness of isolates on seedlings were investigated. A total of 12 isolates were identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics that belonging to Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani species. The results of the standard germination test showed that there was a significant difference among the seed populations studied in the germination and vigor indices. Seed infected by seed-borne fungi significantly affects germination and vigor indices and reduces seed quality and health. The results showed that the highest vigor and germination indices were observed in Fariman seed population followed by Kashmar, Quchan and Mashhad seed populations. The results of pathogenicity test showed that about 41.7% of the isolates were pathogenic and 58.3% of the isolates were non-pathogenic. Also, different levels of pathogenicity and aggressiveness were observed for various isolates of Fusarium species. In the continuation of this research, the essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and its major constituents were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compounds identified essential oils included β-pinene, ρ-cymene, γ-terpinene and cuminic aldehyde. The results showed that the compounds of α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, γ-terpinene, terpinen-4-ol, β-farnesene and carotol had antifungal effects against F. oxysporum isolates. Synergistic effects of the main constituents of essential oils showed that combing terpinen-4-ol with β-pinene induced a synergistic activity and combing terpinen-4-ol with γ-terpinene and also β-elemene with γ-terpinene caused an additive effect against were F. oxysporum isolates. This is the first report on the effect of essential oil compositions of native cumin seed populations on seed-borne fungi isolated from the same seeds. The findings of this research showed that amount and the type of constituents of essential oils of cumin seed populations are different and it can affect the abundance of seed-borne fungi and their level of pathogenicity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cumin
  • Fusarium
  • Pathogenicity
  • Seed-borne
  • Synergistic effects
  • Terpinen-4-ol
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