ارزیابی ویژگی‌های جوانه‌زنی، مورفوفیزیولوژیک و آنزیم‌های آنتی اکسیدانت ارقام جو در تحمل به شوری طبیعی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

3 کارشناسی ارشد آگرواکولوژی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

4 دپارتمان مهندسی تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فنی و حرفه‌ای خراسان رضوی، خراسان رضوی، خراسان، ایران

چکیده

شناسایی و توسعه کشت ارقام متحمل به شوری، یکی از راهکارهای بهبود عملکرد است. به­منظور بررسی تأثیر شوری بر صفات کمی و کیفی ارقام دیم و آبی جو، این آزمایش در آزمایشگاه فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه شاهد در سال 1397 اجرا شد. عامل­های آزمایش شامل ارقام جو (ریحان، جلگه، خرم و ایذه) در واکنش به چهار سطح شوری (عدم اعمال شوری به­عنوان شاهد و شوری 5، 10، 15 و 20 دسی­زیمنس بر متر با نمک دریاچه قم) بودند. این آزمایش به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. صفات مورد اندازه­گیری شامل شاخص­های جوانه­زنی، رنگدانه­های فتوسنتزی، ترکیبات محلول و دو آنزیم آنتی­اکسیدانت بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیش­ترین میزان مؤلفه­های جوانه­زنی همچون درصد جوانه­زنی (71/79 درصد)، سرعت جوانه­زنی (18/5 بذر در روز)، طول ریشه­چه (55/6 سانتی­متر)، طول ساقه­چه (46/8 سانتی­متر)، شاخص طولی (1/70) و وزنی بنیه گیاهچه (17/165) در عدم تنش شوری به­دست آمد. با افزایش سطوح شوری، محتوای نسبی آب، شاخص پایداری غشاء و محتوای پروتئین ارقام کاهش یافت و محتوای کاروتنوئید، پرولین، مالون­دی­آلدئید و آنزیم­های سوپراکسیددیسموتاز و آسکوربات پراکسیداز در بالاترین سطح شوری به­دست آمد. در بین ارقام جو مورد مطالعه رقم خرم در بالاترین سطح شوری، بیش­ترین درصد و سرعت جوانه­زنی و هم­چنین صفات فیزیولوژیک را داشت. به­نظر می­رسد این رقم دیم در شرایط تنش شوری جوانه­زنی و رشد قابل توجهی داشته باشد. در مراحل بعد می­توان ارقام جلگه و ایذه را نیز توصیه کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of germination, morphphysiological and antioxidant enzymes of barley cultivars in tolerance to natural salinity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khadijeh Ahmadi 1
  • Heshmat Omidi 2
  • Mohsen Mehrnia 3
  • Ali Ghaderi 4
  • Hossein Sabouri Fard 4
1 PhD student in Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor and member of the faculty, Department of Agriculture and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran Iran
3 Master of Agroacology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Plant Production Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Technical and Vocational University of Khorasan Razavi Province, Khorasan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Identification and development of salinity cultivation cultivars, one of the ways to improve performance. The development of salt-tolerant cultivars is a potentially effective approach for minimizing yield losses.In order to investigate the effects of salinity on the qualitative and quantitative traits of rainfed and irrigated barley cultivars, this experiment was conducted in Crop Physiology Laboratory of Shahed University in 2019. Experimental factors included barley cultivars (Reyhan, Jolgeh, Khorram and Izeh) in response to four salinity levels (no salinity as control and salinity of 5, 10, 15 and 20 ds/m with Qom lake salt).The experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications. The measured traits included germination indices, photosynthetic pigments, soluble compounds and two antioxidant enzymes. Results showed that the highest germination components such as germination percentage (79.71%), germination rate (5.18 seeds per day), root length (6.55 cm), stem length (8.46 cm), longitudinal index (70.1) and the weight of the seedlings (165.17) in the absence of salinity stress.. With increasing salinity levels, RWC, membrane stability index and protein content of cultivars decreased and the content of carotenoid, proline, MDA and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were highest in salinity. Among the studied barley cultivars, Khorram had the highest percentage and rate of germination as well as soluble compounds at the highest salinity level. This cultivar appears to have significant germination and growth under salinity stress conditions. In the later stages it is possible to recommend flat and Izeh cultivars.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant
  • Barley
  • Chlorophyll
  • MDA
  • Proline
  • Salinity
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