بررسی تأثیر تنش خشکی و محلول‌پاشی پتاسیم بر خصوصیات جوانه‌زنی و بنیه گیاهچه گندم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 موسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال

2 موسسه ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال

3 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان یزد

چکیده

تأثیر تنش­خشکی و محلول­پاشی پتاسیم بر جوانه‌زنی و بنیه گیاهچه حاصل از بذر گیاه مادری گندم در آزمایشگاه بررسی شد. در مزرعه، آزمایش در سال زراعی 91-90، به­صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو منطقه، کرج و یزد اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل تنش‌خشکی به­صورت قطع آبیاری در سه سطح، از مرحله تشکیل سنبله تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک، از مرحله شروع پرشدن دانه تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک و آبیاری نرمال، محلول­پاشی پتاسیم در سه سطح، عدم محلول‌پاشی، محلول­پاشی5/1 و 3 درصد K2O و دو رقم پیشتاز و مرودشت و لاین  WS-82-9 بودند. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش تنش‌خشکی درصد جوانه­زنی قبل از بوجاری، کاهش معنی­دار داشت. بذرهای لاین WS-82-9 تولید شده در شرایط آبیاری نرمال و بذرهای رقم مرودشت تولید شده در شرایط تنش شدید خشکی به­ترتیب با 77/94 و 5/56 درصد، بیش­ترین و کم­ترین درصد جوانه‌زنی را داشتند. محلول­پاشی 3 درصد K2O نسبت به عدم محلول­پاشی پتاسیم، درصد جوانه­زنی بذر قبل از بوجاری را در یزد و کرج به­ترتیب به میزان 47/10 و 65/5 درصد افزایش داد. وزن خشک گیاهچه بیش­تر، با بذرهای لاین WS-82-9 در شرایط آبیاری نرمال و محلول­پاشی 5/1 درصدK2O ، (018/0 گرم) و وزن خشک کم­تر، با بذرهای رقم مرودشت در شرایط تنش شدید خشکی و عدم محلول­پاشی (009/0 گرم) به­دست آمد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که محلول‌پاشی3 درصد K2O و استفاده از لاین WS-82-9 در تعدیل اثرات تنش ‌خشکی، به‌ویژه در مزارعی که در مراحل پایانی دوره رشد با محدودیت آب مواجه هستند، مؤثر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of drought stress and potassium foliarapplication on seed germination characteristics and seedling vigour of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Zareian 1
  • Aidin Hamidi 1
  • Farshid Hasani 2
  • Seyed Ali Tabatabaei 3
1 Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Research Institute
2 Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Research Institute
3 Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center Yazd
چکیده [English]

The effects of drought stress and potassium foliar application on seed germination and seedling vigour of wheat maternal plant, was studied. Field experiments conducted during growing season of 2011-2012 at two geographical zones: 1. Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Research Institute (SPCRI), Karaj- Iran 2. Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center Yazd - Iran. The experiments were carried out using a split plot factorial based on a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Treatments were three irrigation regimes; normal, mild stress (water withheld at the grain filling phase) and severe stress (water withheld at the ear emergence phase); potassium foliar treatments included, 0, 1.5% and 3.0% K2O applications and two wheat cultivars (Marvdasht and Pishtaz) and WS-82-9 line. Results indicated that seed germination percentage before seed cleaning significantly decreased by increasing drought stress. Maximum and minimum values of seed germination were obtained with WS-82-9 line under normal condition (%94.77) and Marvdasht under severe drought stress (%56.5), respectively. Seed germination after seed cleaning was increased by spraying with 3.0% K2O at Yazd (%10.47) and Karaj (%5.65). High and low seedling dry weight  values were attained with WS-82-9 line under normal irrigation and sprayed with 1.5 % K2O (0.018 gr) and Marvdasht under severe drought stress and no application of potassium (0.009 gr), respectively. It can be concluded that cultivating the WS-82-9  line and sprayed with 3.0% K2O are effective, especially in case of shortage irrigation at the end of plant life cycle.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cultivar
  • Drought stress
  • Foliar application potassium
  • Seed germinatin and Wheat
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