اثر دگرآسیبی عصاره آبی گلرنگ (Carthamus tinctorius)بر جوانه‌زنی، رشد گیاهچه و فعالیت‌های آنزیمی علف هرز یولاف وحشی(Avena fatua) و سوروف (Echinochloa crus-galli)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

واحد شوشتر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شوشتر، ایران

چکیده

این آزمایش به منظور بررسی اثر دگرآسیبی عصاره آبی گلرنگ بر جوانه‌زنی و فعالیت برخی آنزیم‌های حیاتی دو علف هرز یولاف وحشی و سوروف انجام شد. اثر غلظت‌های عصاره گلرنگ (صفر، 10، 20، 30 و 40 درصد) در دو آزمایش جداگانه هر یک به صورت طرح کاملآ تصادفی و پنج تکرار بر ویژگی‌های جوانه‌زنی بذر یولاف وحشی و سوروف مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که در غلظت‌های 30 و 40 درصد عصاره آبی گلرنگ، جوانه‌زنی یولاف وحشی به ترتیب 3/33 و 6/46 درصد بود و در مقایسه با شاهد (3/93 درصد) به طور معنی‌دار کاهش یافت، درحالی‌که جوانه‌زنی بذر سوروف در این دو تیمار در حدود 30 درصد در مقایسه با شاهد کاهش یافت. عصاره گلرنگ سبب کاهش فعالیت آنزیم آلفا آمیلاز در بذر سوروف شد. میزان فعالیت آنزیم آلفا آمیلاز گیاهچه سوروف و یولاف وحشی در تیمار عصاره 40 درصد گلرنگ به ترتیب به میزان 2/2 و 9/1 نانومول بر میلی گرم پروتئین در دقیقه بود. افزایش غلظت عصاره گلرنگ باعث تخریب غشای سلولی، افزایش سطح اسید چرب آزاد و کاهش میزان فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز گیاهچه سوروف شد. بطور کلی، ترکیبات دگرآسیب موجود در عصاره آبی گلرنگ از طریق کاهش فعالیت آنزیم آلفا آمیلاز و افزایش پراکسیداسیون چربی‌های غشا موجب کاهش میزان و سرعت جوانه‌زنی گیاهچه سوروف و یولاف وحشی شد. جوانه‌زنی و رشد گیاهچه یولاف وحشی در مقایسه با سوروف از حساسیت بیشتری به عصاره گلرنگ برخوردار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of safflower aqueous extracts (Carthamus tinctorius) on germination, seedling growth and enzymes activity of wild oat (Avena fatua) and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Adel Modhej
  • Roozbeh Farhoodi
  • Azam Gholizadeh
Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effect of safflower aqueous extracts on seedling growth and enzymes activity of wild oat and barnyard grass, this experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five replications in 2 separated experiments. Effect of different concentrations of safflower extracts (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) were examined on seed germination characters of wild oat and barnyard grass weeds. The results showed that in the concentrations of 30 and 40% of safflower aquatic extract, wild oat germination was 33.3% and 46.6%, respectively, and significantly decreased in comparison with control (93.3%). While, under 30 and 40% concentrations, barnyard grass germination was 30% lower than control treatment. Safflower extract reduced the activity of α-amylase enzymes in barnyard grass seeds. The activity level of α-amylase enzymes and wild oat seedlings in the treatment of 40% safflower extract was 2.2 and 1.9 nmol / g protein / min, respectively. Increasing the concentration of safflower extract resulted in degradation of cell membranes, increased free fatty acid levels, and decreased activity of barnyard grass catalase enzymes. In general, the allelopathic compounds in the aqueous extract of safflower reduced the amount and speed of germination of wild grasshoppers and wild oat by reducing the activity of α-amylase enzyme and increasing the peroxidation of membrane fats. Germination and seedling growth of wild oat compared to barnyard grass were more susceptible to safflower extract.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • allelopathy
  • α-amylase
  • fatty acid
  • germination percentage
Bais, H.P., Vepachedu, R., Gilbory, S., Calaway, R. and Jorge, M. 2003. Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion, from molecules and genes to species interaction. Science, 301: 1377-1380. (Journal)

Bazrafshan, F., Safahani langroudi, A.R. and Mosavinya, H. 2010. Study of allelopathic effects of different weeds on germination and seedling growth of wheat. Journal of Weed Research, 2(2): 59-70. (In Persian with English abstract)(Journal)

Bogatek, R. and Gniazdowska, A. 2007. ROS and phytohormones in plant-plant allelopathic interaction. Plant Signal Behavior, 2(4): 317–318. (Journal)

Bohm, P., Zanardo A. and Ferrarese, O. 2006. Peroxidase activity and lignification in soybean root growth-inhibition by juglone. Biology Plantarum, 50(2): 315-317. (Journal)

Chance, B. and Maehly, A.C. 1995. Assay of catalase and peroxidases. Methods Enzymology, 2: 764-775. (Journal)

Farhoudi, R. 2012. Effect of safflower aqueous extracts foliar application on peroxidase enzyme activity and cell membrane leakage of hairy vetch. Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi), 102: 45-53 (In Persian with English abstract)(Journal)

Farhoudi, R. and Lee, D.J. 2012. Evaluation of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. cv. Koseh) extract on germination and induction of α-amylase activity of wild mustard(Sinapis arvensis L.) seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 40: 2-6. (Journal)

Farhoudi, R., Modhej, A. and Alavi, R. 2014. Effects of allelochemical compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on seed germination, seedling growth and some antioxidant activities of Chenopodium album. Journal of Plant Protection, 28(2): 234-241 (In Persian with English abstract) (Journal)

Faroog, M., Jabran, K., Rehman, H. and Hussain, M. 2008. Allelopathic effects of rice on seedling development in wheat, oat, Barley and berseem. Allelopathy Journal, 22: 385-390. (Journal)

Glenn, A. 2008. Allelopathic interference of invasive Acacia dealbata on the rice seedling growth. Proceeding of 5th World Congress on Allelopathy, New York, USA. (Conference)

Goran, Y.A.R. and Sakri, F.A. 2009. Allelopathic effect of barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) water extract of shoot, root and soil beneath plants on seed germination and seedling of wheat, barley cultivars and some weeds. Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 21(4): 10-19. (Journal)

Gniazdowska, A. and Bogatek, R. 2005. Allelopathic interaction between plants: Multi site action of allelochemicals. Acta Physiolgia Plantarum, 27: 395–408. (Journal)

Kato-Noguchi, H. and Macias, F.A. 2008. Inhibition of germination and α-amylase induction by 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone in twelve plant species. Biology Plantarum, 52(2): 351-354. (Journal)

Kato-Noguchi, H. and Ino, T. 2001. Assessment of allelopatic potential of root exudates of rice seedling. Biology Plantarum, 44(4): 635-638. (Journal)

 Lorenzo, P., Palomera-Pe´rez, A., Reigosa, M.J. and Gonzal, L. 2011. Allelopathic interference of invasive Acacia dealbata link on the physiological parameters of native understory species. Plant Ecology, 212: 403-411. (Journal)

Maccaron, M., Zadelhoff, G.V., Vegdink, G.A., Vilegenthart, F.G. and Finazzi-Agro, A. 2000. Early activation of lipoxygenase in lentil root protoplasts by oxidative stress induced programmed cell death. European Journal of Biochemistry, 267: 5078-5084. (Journal)

Maffei, M., Bertea, C.M., Garneri, F. and Scanneri, S. 1999. Effect of benzoic acid hydroxy- and methoxy-ring substituents during cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germination. I. Isocitrate lyase and catalase activity. Plant Science, 141: 139-147. (Journal)

Marianne, K., Morten, S. and Beate, S. 2000. Ecological effects of allelopathic plants, A Review. Nery. Technical Report No.35. Http://www. Dmu.Du/1 Viden. (Report)

Modhej, A., Rafatjoo A. and Behdarvandi, B. 2013. Allelopathic inhibitory potential of some crop species (wheat, barley, canola, and safflower) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis). International Journal of Bioscience, 3 (10): 212-220. (Journal)

Morian, M., Doa, A. and Zhang, L. 2009. Investigation the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of safflower on wheat germination. Proceeding of Weed Science Conference, Melbourne, Australia. 36-41. (Conference)

Motamedi, M., Karimmojeni, H. and Ghorbani Sini, F. 2016. Evaluation of allelopathic potential of safflower genotypes (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Journal of Plant Protection Research.56 (4): 364-371. (Journal)

Oracz, K., Bailly, C., Gniazdowska, A., Côme, D., Corbineau, D. and Bogatek, R. 2007. Induction of oxidative stress by sunflower phytotoxins in germinating mustard seeds. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 33: 251-264. (Journal)

Regiosa, M. and Pedrol, N. 2002. Stress and allelopathy. In: Allelopathy, from molecules to ecosystems. Science Publishers Inc, USA. P: 12-195. (Book)

Scott, S.J., Jones, R.A. and Williams, W.A. 1984. Review of data analysis methods for seed germination. Crop Science, 24: 1192-1199. (Journal)

Valentovic, P., Luxova, M., Kolarovi, L. and Gasparikora, O. 2006. Effect of osmotic stress on compatible solutes content, membrane stability and water relation in two maize cultivars. Plant, Soil and Environment, 52(4): 186-191. (Journal)

 Weston, L.A and Duke, S.O. 2003. Weed and crop allelopathy. Critical Review in Plant Sciences, 22: 367–389. (Journal)

Wu, H., Pratley, J. and Haig, T. 2000. Laboratory screening for allelopatic potential of wheat accessions against annual raygrass (Luliom rigidum). Australian Journal of Agriculture Research, 51: 259-266. (Journal)

Xiao, Z., Storms, R. and Tsang, A. 2006. A quantitative starch-iodine method for measuring alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activities. Analual Biochemistry, 351: 146-148. (Journal)

Yogatek, R., Orazk, K. and Gniazdowska, A. 2006. Allelopatic effects of sunflower extracts on mustard seed germination and seedling growth. Biology Plantarum, 50(1): 156-158. (Journal)

Yousefi Davood, M., Karimmojeni, H., Khodaee, M.M. and Sabzalian, M.R. 2013. A bioassay assessment of safflower allelopathy using equal compartment agar methods. Journal of Agrobiology, 30(2): 97–106. (Journal)

Yu, J.Q., Fye, S., Zhang, X. and Hu, W.H. 2003. Effects of root exudates and aqueous root extract of cucumber and allelochemicals on photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes in cucumber. Biology System Ecology, 31: 129-139. (Journal)