مقاله مروری- تأثیر نوتروپرایمینگ بر درصد جوانه‌زنی بذر و استقرار گیاهچه گیاهان زراعی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد علوم وتکنولوژی بذر

چکیده

عناصر کم­مصرف برای رشد گیاه و سلامتی بشر ضروری هستند. کاربرد­های خاک­مصرف و برگ­مصرف رایج­ترین روش­های اضافه کردن عناصر کم­مصرف هستند اما به دست آوردن کیفیت بالا با کود سمی عناصر کم­مصرف یک نگرانی عمده در کشور­های در حال توسعه است. در پرایمینگ بذر با عناصر کم­مصرف، عناصر کم­مصرف به صورت اسمزی استفاده می­شود. بذرهای پرایم شده اغلب جوانه­زنی همزمان و بیشتری دارند و کاشت آسان و آبگیری بذر در کوتاه مدت انجام می­شود و باعث افزایش فعالیت متابولیکی برای افزایش جوانه­زنی می­شود. مک­دونالد نشان داد که پرایمینگ بذر می­تواند بر یکپارچگی غشای سلولی تأثیر بگذارد، به طوری­که برخی اجزای غشا مانند اسیدهای چرب C7، C8 و C9 در اثر انجام پیش­تیمار، تغییر یافته و بعد از خشک کردن نمی­توانند به وضعیت اولیه خود برگردند و در نتیجه از نشت مواد به خارج از بذر جلوگیری می­گردد. چندین گزارش از پرایمینگ با عناصر کم­مصرف، بهبود محصولات گندم، برنج و لگوم­های علوفه­ای را نشان داد است، مشخص شده است که پرایمینگ با غلظت بالای عناصر غذایی باعث خرابی بذر و جلوگیری از جوانه­زنی می­شود. آژوری و همکاران گزارش کردند که غلظت­های بیش از 50 میلی­مولار بر جوانه­زنی بذرهای جو اثر منفی دارد. همچنین مشاهده شده است غلظت­های پایین روی همراه با غلظت­های بالای فسفر در محلول­های مورد استفاده برای پرایمینگ بذر جو می­تواند در افزایش جوانه­زنی و قدرت رویش بذر مؤثر باشند..

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Review article- Effect of nutripriming on seed germination percentage and seedling stablishment of crop

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed MohammadReza Ehteshami 1
  • Hadi Kianinezhad 2
1 Faculty member, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 MSc. of Seed Science and Technology
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of seed priming with micronutrients on germination indices, seedling establishment, grain yield and yield components of safflower (Cartamus tinctorius L.) a field experiment was conducted in agronomy laboratory of Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan and personal farm of Ilam province during the growing season of 2015. The experiment was arranged based on a factorial arrangements in randomized complete block design with 13 treatments and three replications. The factors were involved priming with micronutrients (Zinc sulfat 4 mM), (Manganes sulfat 4 mM) and (Boric acid 8 mM) and the time of priming (12, 24, 36 and 48 h) along with control without priming. The results showed seed priming with micronutrients had significant effect on all traits. The highest of seedling stablishment percentage and seedling emergences rate in the farm and too the highest amount of oil percent, harvest index, the lowest period of planting until flowering showed in seed priming with manganese sulfate for 12 h. The highest of leaf area index, dry weight in flowering stage, weight of thousand seeds, No. boll per plant, and seeds yield showed in seed priming with manganese sulfate for 24 h. The highest No. seeds in boll, biological yield and seed concentration protein showed in seed priming with zinc sulfate for 24 h. The highest amount of Alpha Amilas activity showed in seed priming with manganese sulfate for 12 h. The highest concentration of zinc, managanes and boron in seed obtained in priming with zinc sulfat for 36 hours, manganes sulfat for 24 hours and boric acid for 24 hours respectively. In addition with respect to result, its seems seed priming with micronutrients especially zinc and manganese in 12 and 24 hours is a suitable method to increase the yield and yield components and also quality traits of safflower seed is Faraman cultivar.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Micronutrients
  • Enzymes
  • Priming
  • Seed vigour
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