تأثیر غلظت‌های مختلف برخی فلزات سنگین بر شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی و بنیه بذر لوبیا چیتی (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد علوم و تکنولوژی بذر، دانشکده کشاورزی- دانشگاه یاسوج

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی- دانشگاه یاسوج

3 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی- دانشگاه یاسوج

چکیده

فلزات سنگین بیوسفر از زمان شروع انقلاب صنعتی در حال افزایش است و سمیت فلزات سنگین سبب اختلال در فرایند جوانه­زنی و رشد گیاهان می­گردد. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر فلزات سنگین بر جوانه‌زنی لوبیا (رقم صدری) آزمایشی در آزمایشگاه تکنولوژی بذر دانشگاه یاسوج در سال 1392 اجرا گردید. این آزمایش به‌صورت طرح کاملاً تصادفی در پنج تکرار شامل غلظت‌های مختلف نیترات کادمیوم، نیترات نیکل، نیترات سرب و سولفات مس در غلظت‌های مختلف 25، 50، 75 و 100 میلی‌گرم در لیتر و یک تیمار شاهد بود. صفات مورد بررسی شامل شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی (درصد و سرعت جوانه‌زنی)، طول و وزن گیاه‌چه و شاخص بنیه بذر بود. نتایج نشان داد که بیش­ترین سرعت و درصد جوانه‌زنی بذر در تیمار شاهد و کم‌ترین آن‌ها در 100 میلی‌گرم در لیتر نیترات سرب بود. با افزایش غلظت سرب، سرعت و درصد جوانه­زنی بذر و وزن خشک ریشه‌چه و ساقه‌چه روند نزولی را نشان داد. غلظت 100 میلی‌گرم در لیتر نیترات کادمیوم سبب کاهش سرعت و درصد جوانه‌زنی بذر لوبیا نسبت به شاهد گردید. افزایش غلظت کادمیوم سبب اختلال در رشد ریشه­چه و ساقه­چه و شاخص بنیه بذر لوبیا گردید. سمیت غلظت مس نسبت به نیکل اثر منفی بیش­تری بر سرعت جوانه­زنی، طول ریشه‌چه و ساقه‌چه، وزن خشک ریشه‌چه و ساقه‌چه و بنیه گیاهچه داشت. در مجموع نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که کادمیوم و سرب ممکن است به گیاهان اجازه‌ی جوانه زدن را بدهد، اما افزایش غلظت آن‌ها سبب اختلال در برخی شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی بذر لوبیا چیتی گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of different concentrations of heavy metals application on germination indices and seed vigor of Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Amini 1
  • Hamidreza Balouchi 2
  • Mohsen Movahhedi Dehnavi 2
  • Mahmood Attarzadeh 3
چکیده [English]

Heavy metals of biosphere rise since the beginning industrial revolution and the toxicity of heavy metals cause to impair in the process of germination and growth of plants. In order to evaluate the effects of heavy metals on the germination of pinto bean (cv. Sadri) an experiment was conducted at Seed Technology Laboratory of Yasouj University in 2013. The experiment was conducted as CRD in five replications include different concentration of Cd(NO3)2, Pb(NO3)2, Ni(NO3)2 and CuSO4 (25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l) and a control treatment. Germination characteristics include the rate and percentage of germination, seedling weight and length and seed vigor index were studied .Results showed that the highest rate and percentage of germination was belonged to control, and least in the 100 mg/l of Pb(NO3)2. With the increase in concentrations of Pb, percentage and rate of germination and root and shoot dry weight showed a downward trend. 100 mg/l concentration of Cadmium nitrate decreased the rate germination of pinto bean seeds in compare with control. Increasing the concentration of cadmium impairs the growth of seedling root; shoot and vigor index of bean. Toxic concentration of copper compared to nickel had more negative effect on germination, root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and seedling vigor. In general, the results of this study showed that cadmium and Pb may give to plants allows germination, but increased in their concentration impaired the some seed germination indices of pinto been seed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental pollution
  • lead
  • Phaseolus vulgaris L
  • Germination power
  • cadmium
Abdul Baki, A.A. and Anderson, J.D. 1973. Vigor determination in soybean seed by multiple criteria. Journal of Crop Science, 13: 630-633. (Journal)

Benavides, M.P., Gallego, S.M. and Tomaro, M.L. 2005. Cadmium toxicity in plants. Plant Physiology, 17(1): 21-34. (Journal)

Bhardwaj, P., Chaturvedi, A.K. and Prasad, P. 2009. Effect of Enhanced Lead and Cadmium in soil on Physiological and Biochemical attributes of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Nature and Science, 7(8): 63-66. (Journal)

Chaoui, A. and El Ferjani, M.H. 2005. Effects of cadmium and copper on antioxidant capacities, lignification and auxin degradation in leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedling. Compes Rendus Biologies, 328: 23-31. (Journal)

Copeland, L.O. and McDonald, M.B. 2001. Seed vigor and vigor tests, 121-144 p. In: Copeland LO, McDonald MB (Eds.). Principles of Seed Science and Technology. 4th Edition. Kluwer Academic Publishing Group. (Book)

Gisbert, G., Ros, R., Haro, A.D., Walker, D.J., Bernal, M.P., Serrano, R. and Navarro-Avino, J. 2003. A plant genetically modified that accumulates Pb is especially promising for phytoremediation. Biochemical Biophysics Commun, 303: 440– 445. (Journal)

Goui, H., Ghorbal, M.H. and Meyer, C. 2001. Effect of cadmium on activity of nitrate reductase and on other enzymes of the nitrate assimilation pathway in bean. Plant Physiology, 38: 629-638. (Journal)

Holum, J.R. 1983. Elements of General and Biological Chemistry, 6th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. 469pp. (Book)

International Seed Testing Association. 2010. International Rules for seed testing. 356 Pp. (Handbook)

Iranbakhsh, A.R., Majd, A. and Naghavi, F. 2010. The Study of the effects of lead and Zinc on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean (Glycine max L.). Journal on Plant Science Research, 5(4): 63-73. (In Persian)(Journal)

Kafi, M., Borzouei, M., Salehi, M., Kamandi, A., Masoumi, A. and Nabati, J. 2012. Physiology of plants to environmental stresses. University of Mashhad Press. 502 pages. (In Persian)(Journal)

Kranner, I. and Colville, L. 2011. Metals and seeds: biochemical and molecular implications and their significance for seed germination. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 72: 93-105. (Journal)  

Lee, J., Bae, H., Jeong, J., Lee, J.Y., Yang, Y.Y. and Hwang, I. 2003. Functional expression of abacterial Heavy metal transporter in Arabidopsis enhances resistance and decrease uptake of heavy metals. Plant Physiology, 133: 589-59. (Journal)

Liu, D., Jiang, W. and Gao, X. 2004. Effects of cadmium on root growth, cell division and nucleoli in root tips of garlic. Biologia Plantarum, 47: 79–83. (Journal)

Maguire, J.D. 1962. Speed of germination – aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigour. Crop Science, 2: 176-177. (Journal)

Marquez Garsia, B., Marquez, C., Sanjose, I., Nieva, F.J.J., Rodriguez Rubio, P. and Munoz-Rodriguez, A.F. 2013. The effects of heavy metals on germination and seedling characteristics in two halophyte species in Mediterranean marshes. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 70: 119-124. (Journal)

Mishra, A. and Choudhuri, M.A. 1997. Differential effect of Pb2+ and Hg2+ on inhibition of germination of seed of two rice cultivars. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 291: 41-44. (Journal)

Montvydiene, D., Marciulioniene, D., Kazlauskiene, N., Ratkelyte, E., Luksiene, B., Tautkus, S. and Padarauskas, A. 2008. Toxic impact of different salts of metals on organisms, 7th International Conference on Environmental Engineering. pp: 231-238. (Conference)

Nichols, M.A. and Heydecker, W. 1986. Two approaches to the study of germination date. Proc. International. Seed Test, 33: 531-540. (Journal)

Peralta, J.R., Gardea-Torresdey, J.L., Tiemann, K.J., Gomez, E., Arteaga, S., Rascon, E. and Parsons, J.G. 2001. Uptake and effects of five heavy metals on seed germination and plant Growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 66: 727-734. (Journal)

Rahman Khan, M. and Mahmud Khan, M. 2010. Effect of varying concentration of nickel and cobalt on the plant growth and yield of chickpea. Australian Journal Basic and Application Science, 4 (6): 1036-1046. (Journal)

Schutzendubel, A., Schwanz, P., Teichmann, T., Gross, K., Langenfeld, R., Douglas, L. and Polle, A. 2001. Cadmium-induced changes in antioxidative systems, hydrogen peroxide content, and differentiation in Scots pine roots. Plant Physiology, 127: 887-898. (Journal)

Sfaxi Bousbih, A., Chaoui, A. and El Ferjani, E. 2010. Cadmium impairs mineral and carbohydrate mobilization during the germination of bean seeds. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 73: 1123-1129. (Journal)

Siddiqui, S. 2012. Lead induced genotoxicity in Vigna mungo var. HD-94. Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 11 (1): 107-112. (Journal)

Soltani, A., Zeinali, E., Galeshi, S. and Latifi, N. 2001. Genetic variation for and interrelationships among seed vigor traits in wheat from the Caspian Sea Coast of Iran. Seed Science and Technology, 29: 653- 662. (Journal)

Yilddiz, M., Cigerci, I.H., Konuk, M., Fidan, A.F. and Terzi, H. 2009. Determination of genotoxic effects of copper sulphate and cobalt chloride in Allium cepa rootcells by chromosome aberration and comet assays. Chemosphere, 75: 934-938. (Journal)

Zengin, F.K. and Munzuroglu, O. 2005. Effects of some heavy metaleson chlorophyll, proline and som antioxidant and chemicals in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings. Acta Biologica Cracoviensla Series Botanica, 47(2): 157–164. (Journal)