بررسی اثر زمان پیری تسریع شده بر بنیه بذر اندازه و شکل‌های مختلف بذر ذرت هیبرید سینگل کراس 704

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران

2 مؤسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال

3 پژوهشکده بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی

4 مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر

چکیده

این آزمایش به­منظور بررسی اثر زمان پیری تسریع شده و اندازه و شکل­های مختلف بذر بر برخی ویژگی­های جوانه­زنی و بنیه گیاهچه ذرت هیبرید سینگل­کراس 704 در سال 1393 در مؤسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال کرج اجرا شد. آزمایش به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 4 تکرار انجام شد. به­منظور درجه­بندی اندازه و شکل بذرها، از سه اندازه غربال با منافذ گرد با قطرهای 5/5، 25/6 و 7 میلی­متر، به­ترتیب برای جداکردن بذرهای شکل گرد و پهن و اندازه متوسط استفاده شدند. بذرها تحت شرایط پیری تسریع شده در دمای 41 درجه ­سانتی­گراد و رطوبت نسبی100 درصد در 4 زمان پیری72، 96، 120 و 144 ساعت قرار گرفتند. سپس، آزمون­ جوانه­زنی استاندارد انجام شد و درصد گیاهچه­های عادی، متوسط زمان جوانه­زنی و شاخص­های طولی و وزنی بنیه گیاهچه اندازه­گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر زمان پیری و اندازه و شکل بذر بر شاخص­های جوانه­زنی و بنیه تعیین­شده معنی­دار بود. زمان پیری 144 ساعت منجر به کاهش معنی­دار درصد گیاهچه­های عادی نسبت به سایر زمان­های پیری شد و بذرهای پیر شده به­مدت120و 144 ساعت پیری بالاترین متوسط زمان جوانه­زنی را داشتند و سپس به­ترتیب بذرهای پیر شده به­مدت 96 و 72 ساعت قرار داشتند. تنها 144 ساعت زمان­ پیری منجر به کاهش معنی­دار شاخص طولی بنیه گیاهچه نسبت به سایر زمان­های پیری شد و بالاترین و کمترین شاخص وزنی بنیه گیاهچه به­ترتیب در 72 و 144 ساعت مشاهده شد. همچنین، بالاترین درصد گیاهچه­های عادی و متوسط زمان جوانه­زنی مربوط به بذرهای شکل پهن و اندازه متوسط بودند و بالاترین و کمترین مقادیر شاخص­های طولی و وزنی بنیه گیاهچه به­ترتیب متعلق به بذرهای شکل پهن و گرد بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of accelerated aging time effect on seed different size and shapes vigor of hybrid corn (Zea mays), cv. single cross 704

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bita Oskouei 1
  • Eslam Majidi Heravan 1
  • Aidin Hamidi 2
  • Foad Moradi 3
  • Ali Moghaddam 4
چکیده [English]

This experiment was conducted in order to evaluate accelerated agingtimeeffect and various size and shapes of hybrid corn, cv. single cross 704 seeds on some germination and seedling vigor traits in 2014 in Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute(SPCRI) at Karaj. Experiment was done as a factorial experiment based on  completely randomized design by four replications. In order to seeds size and shape grading, three round sieves by 5.5, 6.25 and7 mm holes diameter size were used for round and flat shapes and medium size separation respectively. Seeds under taken accelerated ageing conditions at 41 centigrade degree temperature and 100 relative humidity at 4 ageing times, 72, 96,120 and 144 hours. Then standard germination test was conducted and normal seedlings percent and mean germination time and seedling weight and length vigor indices were measured. Results indicated that aging time and seed size and shapes effects on determined germination and vigor indices were significant. Aging time for 144 hours caused significant decrease in normal seedlings percent compared to other ageing times and 120 and 144 hours aged seeds had highest mean germination time and then 96 and 72 hours aged seeds arranged respectively. Only 144 hours aging time caused significant seedling length vigor index decrease in comparison to other aging and highest and lowest seedling weight vigor index investigated at 72 and 144 hours aging times respectively. Also, highest normal seedlings percent and mean germination time related to flat shape and medium size seeds and highest and lowest seedling length and weight vigor indices amounts belonged to flat and round shape seeds respectively comparison indicated that normal seedling percentage, seedling length and weight vigor indices in three seed sizes had significant different and the highest and lowest rates were in flat and round respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Accelerated aging
  • Seed standard germination test
  • Size and shape grading
Abdul-Baki, A.A. 1980. Biochemical aspects of seed vigor. Horticultural Science, 15: 765-771. (Journal)

Anonymous. 2013a. FAO statistical yearbook, world food and agriculture Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.

Anonymous. 2013b. Handbook for seedling evaluation (3rd ed). International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), Zurich, Switzerland. (Book)

Anonymous. 2014. International rules for seed testing. Seed Science and Technology supplement. International Seed Testings Association (ISTA), Basserdorf, Switzerland. (Book)

Anonymus. 2015. Agricuture statistics, first volume-horticultural and field crops, 2010-11 crop year. Information and Communication Technology Center of Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture.

Basra, S.M.A., Ahmad, N., Khan, M.M., Iqbal, N. and Cheema, M.A. 2003. Assessment of cottonseed deterioration during accelerated ageing. Seed Science and Technology, 31: 531-540. (Journal)

Beck, D. 2004. Hybrid corn seed production, In: Wayne Smith, C.(ed.), Corn, history, technology and production. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. pp: 565-630. (Part of Book)

Bhatti, M.S. and Sato, H. 1997. Viability testing. Annual report, Annual report, Plant Genetic Resources Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad Pakistan.

Calton, J.E. and Edgar, E.H. 1970. Effect of seed size upon rate of germination in soybeans. Agronomy Journal, 63:429–450. (Journal)

Ellis, R.H. and Roberts, E.H. 1981. The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 9: 377-409. (Journal)

Fairfood, 2012. Fairfood international: corn. Available at: http://www.fairfood.org/research/production-chains/maize.

Galanoppoulou, S., Fallcinelli M. and Lorenzetti, F. 1996. General agronomic aspects of seed production, pp. 175-187. (Part of Book)

Ghorbani, M.H., Soltani, A. and Amiri, S. 2007. The effect of salinity and seed size on germination and seedling growth of wheat. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 14(6):44-52. (In Farsi) (Journal)

Graven, L.M. and Carter, P.R. 1990. Seed size/shape and tillage system effect on corn growth and grain yield. Journal of Production Agriculture, 3: 445-452. (Journal)

Hampton, J.G. and TeKrony, D.M. 1995. Handbook of vigour test methods (3rd. Ed.). International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). Zurich, Switzerland. (Book)

Kapilan, R. 2015. Accelerated aging declines the germination characteristics of the maize seeds. Scholars Academic Journal of Biosciences (SAJB), 3(8):708-711. (Journal)

Kaya, M.D. 2014. Conformity of vigor tests to determine the seed quality of safflower(Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 8(3): 455-459. (Journal)

Kibinza, S., Vinel, D., Côme, D., Bailly, C. and Corbineau, F. 2006. Sunflower seed deterioration as related to moisture content during ageing, energy metabolism and active oxygen species scavenging. Physiologia Plantarum, 128(3): 496-506. (Journal)

Martin, B.A., Smith, O.S. and Neil, M.O. 1988. Relationships between laboratory germination tests and field emergence of maize inbreds. Crop Science, 28: 801-805. (Journal)

Peterson, J.M., Erdomo, J.A. and Burris, J.S. 1995. Influence of kernel position, mechanical damage and controlled deterioration on estimates of hybrid maize seed quality. Seed Science and Technology, 23:647-657. (Journal)

Powell, A.A. 2007. Seed vigour and its assessment. In: Basra, A.S.(Ed.) Handbook of seed science and technology. Scientific Publishers, India. pp:603-648. (Part of Book)

Roy, S.K.S., Hamid, A., Giashuddin Miah, M. and Hashem, A. 1996. Seed size variation and its effect on germination and seedling vigour in rice. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 176: 79-82. (Journal)

Shelar, V.R., Shaikh, R.S. and Nikam, A.S. 2008. Soybean seed quality during storage: A review. Agriculure Reviews, 29( 2): 125-131. (Journal)

Soltani, A., Galeshi, S., Zeinali, E. and Latifi, N. 2002. Germination, seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of chickpea as affected by salinity and seed size. Seed Science and Technology, 30:51-60. (Journal)

TeKrony, D.M., Shande, T., Rucker, M. and Egli, D.B. 2005. Effect of seed shape on corn germination and vigour during warehouse and controlled environmental storage. Seed Science and Technology, 33: 185–197. (Journal)

Tort, N., Dereboylu, A.E. and Turkylmaz, B. 2006. Morphology and physiological effects of fungicide with a thiram agent on some corn culture forms. Journal of the Faculty of Science, 29: 67-79. (Journal)

Tyagi, C.S. 1992. Evalution of storability of soybean seed. Seeds and Farms, 18: 8-11. (Journal)

Vashisth, A. and Nagarajan, S. 2009. Germination Characteristics of Seeds of Maize (Zea mays L.) Exposed to Magnetic Fields under Accelerated Ageing Condition. Journal of Agricultural Physics, 9: 50-58. (Journal)