تنوع ژنتیکی نمو فیزیولوژیک بذر طی رسیدگی در برخی از اکوتیپ‌های زیره‌ سبز (Cuminum cyminum L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اصلاح نباتات، گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی تنوع ژنتیکی نمو فیزیولوژیک بذر در 14 اکوتیپ‌ زیره سبز ایرانی و یک ژنوتیپ هندی، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران اجرا شد. تجزیه واریانس داده‌ها نشان داد که اکوتیپ‌ها از نظر صفات وزن تر و خشک بذر در زمان قبل از برداشت و موقع برداشت، درصد رطوبت بذر قبل از زمان برداشت، حداکثر درصد جوانه‌زنی و سرعت تا 10 درصد جوانه‌زنی اختلاف معنی‌داری در سطح احتمال 5 درصد دارند که نشان‌دهنده‌ وجود تنوع بین 15 اکوتیپ مورد مطالعه از نظر صفات مذکور است. اکوتیپ‌ها از نظر طول بذر و اندازه جنین، همچنین نسبت طول جنین به بذر تفاوت معنی‌داری در سطح 5 درصد نداشتند. فاکتورهای مورد بررسی برای آزمون جوانه‌زنی شامل 15 اکوتیپ و دما در سه سطح (10، 15 و 20 درجه سلسیوس) بود. اثر دما روی درصد جوانه‌زنی و سرعت تا 10، 30 و 50 درصد جوانه‌زنی در سطح 5 درصد معنی‌دار شد و بیش­ترین درصد و سرعت جوانه‌زنی اکوتیپ‌ها نیز در دمای 15 درجه سلسیوس اتفاق افتاد. همچنین، اثر متقابل دما و اکوتیپ در سطح 5 درصد معنی‌دار نشد. از میان اکوتیپ‌ها، اکوتیپ "کوهبنان" برای اکثر صفات مورد مطالعه بیش­ترین مقدار را دارا بود. بنابراین اکوتیپ مذکور به‌عنوان بهترین اکوتیپ از نظر صفات مرتبط با جوانه­زنی معرفی می‌شود و می‌توان در برنامه‌های اصلاحی و به‌زراعی از آن استفاده نمود. اکوتیپ‌های "چت" و "حیدرآباد هند" نیز برای اکثر صفات کم­ترین مقدار را داشتند. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Genetic variation of seed physiological development during maturity in some of cumin ecotypes (Cuminum cyminum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sohyla Faghihi 1
  • Seyed Mmohammad Mehdi Mortazavian 2
  • Elias Soltani 3
  • Gholam Ali Akbari 4
1 MSc Student in Plant Breeding, Department of Crop Science and Plant Breeding, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Crop Science and Plant Breeding, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Crop Science and Plant Breeding, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Crop Science and Plant Breeding, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the genetic variation of seed physiological development in 14 ecotypes of Iranian cumin and one Indian genotype, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with four replications in the research farm of callege of Aburaihan, University of Tehran. Results analysis of variance showed that ecotypes had significant difference at 5% probability level for characteristics of wet and dry weight of seed at before harvest time and harvest time, seed moisture content before harvest time, maximum germination percentage and rate to 10% of germination, that it indicates the diversity among the 15 ecotypes for these characteristics. Ecotypes did not have significantly different at the 5% level for seed length and embryo size, also the ratio of embryo length to seed length. Factors investigated for germination test included 15 ecotypes and temperatures at three levels (10, 15 and 20 °C). The effect of temperature on germination percentage and rate to 10, 30 and 50% of germination was significant at 5% level and the most percentage and the rate of germination of ecotypes occurred at temperature of 15 °C. Also, the interaction between temperature and ecotype was not significant at 5% level. Among the ecotypes, the "Kooh-banan" ecotype had the highest value for most of the studied characteristics. Therefore, this ecotype is recognized as the best ecotype for characteristics related to germination and it can be used in breeding and farming programs. "Chat" and "Hydarabad" ecotypes had the lowest values for most characteristics.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Embryo size
  • Germination
  • Temperature
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