بررسی اثر دمای انبار و قوه نامیه اولیه بر عوامل جوانه‌زنی و فعالیت آنزیمی بذر دو رقم پیاز (Allium cepa L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بیتا اسکویی، عضو هیئت علمی موسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال، سازمان تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

2 محقق مؤسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال، سازمان تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

این آزمایش به­منظور بررسی اثر دمای انبارداری بر کیفیت بذر دو رقم پیاز با قوه نامیه اولیه متفاوت انجام شد. در این تحقیق سه سطح قوه نامیه اولیه 1- محدوده 75-70 درصد، 2- محدوده 85-80 درصد و 3- محدوده 95-90 درصد از دو رقم پیاز آلبا (روزبلند) و تگزاس­ ارلی­گرانو (روزکوتاه) که به­مدت یک سال در دو شرایط دمایی 1-5 درجه سلسیوس، رطوبت60 درصد 2- 25 درجه سلسیوس، رطوبت30 درصد نگهداری شده بودند، انتخاب شد. آزمایش به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملا تصادفی در چهار تکرار انجام شد. پس از دوره انبارداری درصد جوانه­زنی، درصد گیاهچه عادی، متوسط زمان جوانه­زنی، درصد و سرعت سبز­شدن و همچنین فعالیت آنزیم­های کاتالاز و پراکسیداز اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد اثر متقابل دما، قوه نامیه اولیه و رقم بر درصد جوانه­زنی، متوسط زمان جوانه­زنی، درصد و سرعت سبز­کردن معنی­دار است و اثرهای متقابل رقم و قوه نامیه اولیه و همچنین دما و قوه نامیه اولیه بر درصد گیاهچه عادی معنی­دار بود. مقایسه میانگین­ها نشان دادند درصد جوانه­زنی رقم تگزاس­رلی­گرانو با قوه نامیه اولیه 95-90 درصد در دمای 5 درجه سلسیوس، به­طور معنی­داری از دمای 25 درجه سلسیوس بیش­تر بود. به­طور کلی با افزایش دمای انبارداری، درصد گیاهچه عادی در هر سه سطح قوه نامیه، کاهش یافت. بالاترین زمان جوانه­زنی به رقم تگزاس­ارلی­گرانو با قوه نامیه اولیه 75-70 درصد، در هر دو دمای نگهداری (5 و 25 درجه سلسیوس) و کم­ترین آن به رقم آلبا با قوه نامیه اولیه 95-90 درصد و تگزاس­ارلی­گرانو با قوه نامیه اولیه 85-80 درصد و دمای نگهداری 5 درجه سلسیوس تعلق داشت. در رقم تگزاس­ارلی­گرانو بذرهای با قوه نامیه اولیه 95-90 درصد و دمای نگهداری 5 درجه سلسیوس درصد استقرار بیش­تری از دمای 25 درجه سلسیوس داشتند. بر اساس نتایج به­دست­آمده، شرایط انبارداری با تاثیر بر فعالیت آنزیمی، می­تواند جوانه­زنی و سبز­شدن بذرها را تحت تاثیر قرار­دهد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of warehouse temperature and initial standard germination on germination factors and enzymatic activities in two onion (Allium cepa L.) seed cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bita Oskouei 1
  • Hadis Afshar 2
  • Maryam Divsalar 2
1 Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
2 Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

This experiment was conducted to evaluation of warehouse temperature effects on two cultivars of onion (Alba and Texas early grano؟) with different initial standard germination. In these, study three levels of initial standard germination including 1- 70-75% 2- 80-85% and 3- 90-95% of two onion cultivars including: Alba (long day) and Texas early grano؟ (short day) were selected. Seeds stored in tow conditions including  5 ºc and 60% relative humidity  and 25 ºc and 30% relative humidity. The study carried out as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design in four replications.  After storage period, germination %, normal seedling%, mean time to germination (MTG), rate and percentage of emergence seedlings catalase and peroxidase activities were measured. Factors were initial standard germination levels in three levels, warehouse temperatures in two levels and cultivars in two levels. Results showed that interaction of temperature  initial standard germination  cultivar had significant effect on germination, MTG, percentage and rate of seedling emergence. In addition, interaction of initial standard germination  cultivar and interaction of temperature  initial standard germination on normal seedling were significant. Mean comparisons showed that germination percentage of Texas early grano Cultivar with 90-95% initial standard germination when stored at 5 ºc warehouse temperature was higher than 25 ºc warehouse temperature significantly. Generally, in all three levels germination, normal seedling percentage was decreased with increasing of warehouse temperature. The highest MTG belonged to Texas early grano in both warehouse temperatures (5 and 25 º c) with 70-75%, initial standard germination. The lowest one belonged to Alba cultivar with 90-95% initial standard germination and Texas early grano with 80-85% initial standard germination when stored at 5ºc. In Texas early grano, seeds with 90-95% initial standard germination and 5ºc temperature warehouse had higher establishment than 25 ºc. Based on the results, storage conditions can affect germination and seedling emergence by affecting enzymatic activity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Storage
  • Seed deterioration
  • Seed viability
  • Seed quality
Abd El-Gawad, K.F. 2012. Effect of some pre and post-harvest treatments on onion seed production and longevity. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cairo University, Egypt. (Thesis( Ahmadi, K., Ebadzadeh, H.M., Hatami, F., Abdeshah, H., and Kazemian, A. 2019. Statistics of crop production 2017–2018. Vol. 1 Crop products, Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture. 95 pp. https://www.maj.ir/Dorsapax/userfiles/Sub65/Amarnamehj1-96-97-site.pdf Alhamdan A.M., Abdullah, A.A.O., Alsadon Safwat Khalil, S.O., Alhamdan, A.M., Alsadon, A.A., Khalil, S.O., Mahmoud, A.W., Wahab-Allah, M.A., Nagar, M.E. and Ibrahim, A.A. 2011. Influence of storage conditions on seed quality and longevity of four vegetable crops. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 11(3): 353-359 (Journal) Anonymous. 2018. ISTA Handbook on seeding evaluation.4th Edition. Zurich, Switzerland. (Handbook) Anonymous. 2020. International rules for seed testing. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). Zurich, Switzerland. (Handbook) Basra, S.M.A., Ahmad, N., Khan, M.M., Iqbal, N. and Cheema, M.A. 2003. Assessment of cotton seed deterioration during accelerated ageing. Electronic Journal of Seed Science and Technology, 31(3): 531-540. (Journal) Bradford, M.M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein day binding. Electronic Journal of Analitical؟ Biochemistry, 72:248-254. (Journal) Cesar, P.H.F., Andre Luis, D.G., Elton Aparecido, S.M., and Guilherme, C.O. 2016. The effect of drying temperatures and storage of seeds on the growth of soybean seedlings. Journal of Seed Science, 38(4): 287-295. (Journal) Cortelazzo, A.L., Coutinho, J. and Granjeiro, P.A. 2005. Storage and ageing of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): effect on seed viability and vigour. Brazilian Journal of Morphological Science, 22(2):121–128. (Journal) Dehghan, M., Mahmoudi, I. and Karimi, S. 2018. Genetic purity evaluation of cereal seeds produced in Fars province in control Plots. Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Research, 4(4): 49-58 (Journal) Demir, I., Celikkol, T., Sarikamis, G. and Eksi, C. 2011. Vigor tests to estimate seedling emergence potential and longevity in Viola seed lots. Journal of Horticultural Science: a publication of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 46(3):402-405. (Journal) Demirkaya, M., Dietz, K.J. and Sivritepe, H.O. 2010. Changes in antioxidant enzymes during ageing of onion seeds. Journal of Notulae Botanicae Horticulture Agrobotanici Cluj, 38(1): 49-52. (Journal) Ellis, R.H. and Roberts, E.H. 1981. The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seeds. Journal of Seed Science and Technology, 9: 377-409. (Journal) Ghavam, M. and Azarnivand, H. 2016. Evaluation of seed vigor index of three plants of Artemisia absinthium L., Arcitum lappa L. and Cichorium intybus L. Salinity conditions. Journal of Natural Ecosystems of Iran, 7(3): 39-49. (Journal) Goel, A., Goel, A.K. and Sheoran, I. S. 2003. Changes in oxidative stress enzyme during artificial aging in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seed. Journal of Plant Physiology, 160(9): 1093-1100. (Journal) Kapoor, N., Arya, A., Siddiqui, M.A., Amir, A. and Kumar, H. 2010. Seed deterioration in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under ccelerated geing. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 9(3): 158-162. Khaldun, B.M. and Haque, M.E. 2009. Seed quality deterioration due to temporal variation of biotic and biotic factors in cucumber. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 34(4): 457-463. (Journal) Kikuti P.A.L. and Marcos-Filho J. 2008. Drying and storage of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) hydro primed seeds. Journal of Seed Science and Technology, 36: 396–406. (Journal) Madruga, D.E., Tunes, L., Tavares, L.C., Rufino, C., Vieira, J.F., Acunha, T., Aibuquerque Barros, A.C.S. and Muniz, M. 2011. Accelerated aging of onion seeds (Allium cepa L.) submitted to saturated salt solution. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Hortícolas, 5(2): 244-250. (Journal) Mahjabin, S.B. and Abidi, A.B. 2015. Physiological and biochemical changes during seed deterioration: a review. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 6(2): 3416-3422. (Journal) Moradi Shakoorian, Z., Askari Sarcheshmeh, M.A., Delshad, D. and Tavakkol Afshari, R. 2019. Determination of the Cardinal Temperatures and Studying the Effect of Temperature on the Efficiency of Priming on Onion Seed (Allium Cepa c.v, Zargan). Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Technology, 8(1): 265-277. (In Persian)(Journal) Patel, J.B., Babariya, C.A., Jyoti, S., Ribadiya, K.H. and Bhatiya, V.J. 2017. Effect of storage conditions, packing materials and seed treatments on viability and seedling vigour of onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds. Electronic Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 9(2): 1054-1067. (Journal) Ram, C., Kumari, P., Singh, O. and Sardana, R.K. 1989. Relationship between seed vigor tests and field emergence in chickpea. Seed Science and Technology, 17: 169-177. (Journal) Rao, R.G.S., Singh, P.M. and Rai, M., 2006. Storability of onion seeds and effects of packaging and storage conditions on viability and vigour. . Journal of Scientia Horticulturae, 110(1):1-6. (Journal) Shashibhaskar, M.S., Vasudevan, S.N., Kurdikeri, M.B., Ravikumar, R.L. and Basavaraj, N. 2009. Influence of seed pelleting on storability of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.). Karnataka Journal of Agricultural. Science, 22(5): 1097-1103. (Journal) Soltani, A., Zeinali, E., Mohammadi, H. and Sadeghipoor, H.R. 2011. Effects of seed aging on subsequent seed reserve utilization and seedling growth in soybean. International Journal of Plant Production, 5(1):1735-6814. (Journal) Thirusendura Selvi, D. and Saraswathy, S. 2017. Seed viability, seed deterioration and seed quality improvements in stored onion seeds: a review. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 93(1):1-7. (Journal) Tort, N., Dereboylu, A.E. and Turkylmaz, B. 2006. Morphology and physiological effects of fungicide with a thiram agent on some corn culture forms. Journal of Forest Science, 29(1): 67-79. (Journal) Yoti, J. and Malik, CP. 2013. Seed deterioration: A review. International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research, 2(3): 374-385. (Journal)