بررسی اثرات دگرآسیبی بقایای کینوا بر جوانه‌زنی و صفات مورفوفیزیولوژیک گندم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد علوم و تکنولوژی بذر، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

گندم مهم‌ترین محصول کشاورزی در جهان است و نقش مهمی در تأمین امنیت غذایی دارد. بر این اساس که گندم پس از کینوا کاشته می­شود، بیم آن می­رود که وجود بقایای کینوا در کشت گندم باعث بروز اثرات منفی آللوپاتیک شود. به‌منظور بررسی اثر عصاره آبی بقایای گیاه کینوا بر جوانه‌زنی و رشد اولیه گیاهچه گندم، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی در 4 تکرار در آزمایشگاه فناوری بذر دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شاهد تهران اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل نوع اندام (گل‌آذین، برگ، ساقه و ریشه) و غلظت عصاره آبی گیاه کینوا (صفر، 5، 25، 50، 75 و 100 درصد) بود. در این آزمایش صفات درصد جوانه‌زنی، طول ساقه­چه، طول ریشه‌چه، طول گیاهچه، وزن خشک گیاهچه، محتوای نسبی آب، فعالیت آنزیم آلفاآمیلاز، محتوای قند محلول، فنل کل و پرولین گیاهچه گندم مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد غلظت‌های پایین عصاره اندام‌های کینوا (5 و 25 درصد) نه‌تنها اثرات منفی بر صفات درصد جوانه‌زنی، طول گیاهچه، وزن خشک و محتوای نسبی آب گندم نداشتند، حتی این صفات را بهبود بخشیدند. غلظت‌های بالای عصاره اثرات منفی بر صفات مورفولوژیک مورد مطالعه داشتند. در این ‌بین اثرات منفی عصاره‌های برگ و گل‌آذین به‌مراتب بیش­تر از اثرات عصاره‌های ساقه و ریشه بود. عصاره‌های اندام‌های مختلف کینوا باعث کاهش فعالیت آنزیم آلفاآمیلاز و افزایش میزان قند محلول، فنل کل و اسیدآمینه پرولین در گیاهچه گندم شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the allopathic effects of quinoa residues on germination and morphophysiological traits of wheat

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasim Amraie 1
  • Ali Mansouri 2
  • Heshmat Omidi 3
1 M.Sc. Student in Seed Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD student in agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Wheat is the most important agricultural product in the world and plays an important role in ensuring human food security. According to the fact that Wheat is planted after Quinoa, it is feared that the presence of Quinoa in Wheat cultivation may cause negative allelopathic effects. To investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Quinoa on seed germination and early growth of Wheat seedling, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications was conducted at Seed Technology Laboratory of Shahed University of Agriculture, Tehran, Iran. Experimental factors included organ type (inflorescence, leaf, stem and root) and aqueous extract concentration of Quinoa (0, 5, 25, 50, 75 and 100%). In this experiment traits such as germination percentage, shoot length, root length, plantlet length, plantlet dry weight, relative water content, alpha-amylase activity, soluble sugar content, total phenol and proline of Wheat seedling were studied. The results showed that low concentrations of the extract of Quinoa (5 and 25%) had not only negative effects on germination percentage, plantlet length, dry weight and relative water content of Wheat, but even improved these traits. High concentrations of the extract had negative effects on morphological traits. The negative effects of leaf and inflorescence extracts were more than the effects of stem and root extracts. Application of different extracts of Quinoa reduced the activity of alpha-amylase and increased soluble sugar, total phenol and amino acid proline in wheat plantlet.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alpha-amylase
  • Allelopathy
  • Prolin
  • Germination
  • Soluble sugar
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