ارزیابی برخی ویژگی‌های جوانه‌زنی بذر گیاهان خرفه، تاج‌خروس و پنیرک در شرایط تنش شوری و خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فارغ‌‌التحصیل کارشناسی ارشد دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

یکی از مسائل مهم در شرایط خشک و نیمه خشک، کمبود آب آبیاری و شوری آب و خاک است. به­منظـور بررسـی تـأثیر تنش شوری و خشکی، بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی جوانه­زنی گیاهان خرفه، تاج­خروس و پنیرک مطالعه­ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالـب طـرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در آزمایشگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس در سال 1395 انجام شـد. سـطوح پتانسیل اسمزی و ماتریک ناشی از تنش شوری (0، 6- و 12- بار) و خشکی (0، 3- و 6- بار) به­عنوان عامل اول و گونه­های خرفه، تاج خروس و پنیرک مذکور به­عنوان عامل دوم در دو آزمایش به­صورت مجزا انجام شد. نتـایج نـشان داد که تمام صفات مورد مطالعه به جز صفت درصد جوانه­زنی در گیاه پنیرک، تحت­تأثیر اثرات متقابل تنش شوری و خشکی قرار گرفتند. تنش شوری و خشکی موجب کاهش اکثر صفات مورد مطالعه در هر گیاه مورد بررسی شد. در شرایط بدون تنش خرفه و تاج­خروس بیشترین میزان درصد جوانه­زنی و قدرت سبز شدن گیاهچه را داشتند، با این وجود افزایش فعالیت آنزیم­های کاتالاز، پراکسیداز و غلظت پروتئین در گیاه پنیرک به­خصوص در تنش شوری 6- بار و خشکی 3- بار حاکی از مقاومت بالاتر این گیاه نسبت به دوگونه دیگر بود. در مورد گیاهان خرفه و تاج خروس تنش شوری و خشکی موجب کاهش جوانه­زنی بذور شد که به نظر می­رسد، کاهش جوانه­زنی در آن­ها در نتیجه کاهش قابلیت دسترسی آب یا تداخل با برخی جنبه­های متابولیسم همانند تغییر موازنه تنظیم­کننده­های رشد باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Some germination characteristics of Portulaca oleracea L., Malva neglecta Wallr., and Amaranthus retroflexus L. under salinity and drought Stress conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zeinab Sharafi 1
  • Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavy 2
  • Ali Heidarzadeh 3
1 Graduated MSc Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tarbiat Modares, Iran
2 Prof., Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tarbiat Modares, Iran
3 Ph.D student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tarbiat Modares, Iran
چکیده [English]

One of the major problems in arid and semi-arid conditions is the lack of irrigation water, and soil and water salinity. In order to investigate the effect of salinity and drought stress on the quantitative and qualitative germination characteristics of portulaca, malva and amaranthus, a study done as factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications in the research laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture in 2016. In the first experiment first factor was effect of salt stress including NaCl was the effect of osmotic potential level (0, -6 and -12 bar) and the Second factor three weeds spicefic (Portulaca, Malva and Amaranthus). In the second experiment first factor was effect of drought stress including PEG 6000 was the effect of osmotic potential level (0, -3 and -6 bar) and the Second factor three weeds spicefic (Portulaca, Malva and Amaranthus). The results showed that all the studied traits except the germination percentage in cheese plant were affected by the interaction effects of salinity and drought stress. Salinity and drought stress reduced most of the studied traits in each plant. In non-stress conditions, portulaca and amaranthus had the highest percentage of germination and seedling germination vigor, however, increasing the activity of catalase, peroxidase and protein concentrations in cheese plant, especially in salinity stress -6 times and drought-3 times, indicated a higher resistance of this plant than the other two species. In the case of portulaca and amaranthus, salinity and drought stress reduced seed germination, which seems to reduce germination due to reduced water availability or interference with some aspects of metabolism, such as altering the balance of growth regulators.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • Environmental stresses
  • Electrical conductivity
  • Germination
  • Vigor
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