ارزیابی بنیه، تغییرات محتوی پروتئین، نشاسته و سلامت بذر ذرت(Zea mays L. ) هیبرید تحت تأثیر تاریخ-های مختلف کاشت و رطوبت‌های متفاوت برداشت در منطقه مغان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 مؤسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال-کرج

2 مؤسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال

3 موسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال

4 عضو هیات علمی / موسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال


این آزمایش به منظور بررسی اثر تغییر تاریخ کاشت و رطوبت برداشت بر تغییرات بنیه، میزان پروتئین و نشاسته و سلامت بذر ذرت سینگل کراس 704 انجام شد. آزمایش در مزرعه مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اردبیل(مغان) در سه تکرار به­صورت بلوک­های کامل تصادفی اجرا شد. تیمارها  شامل سه تاریخ کاشت 22 اردیبهشت، 4 خرداد و 19 خرداد وچهار سطح تیماررطوبت برداشت 30، 25، 20 و 15 درصد بودند. پس از اینکه بلال­ها به رطوبت مورد نظر رسیدند در هوای آزادخشک شدند تا به رطوبت 14 درصد رسیدند سپس با بلال دانه­کن آزمایشگاهی دان شدند و توسط سه غربال در اندازه های 7، 6 و 5/5 میلی­متر به­ترتیب به سه اندازه بذری پهن(هفت میلیمتر)، گرد(شش میلیمتر) و متوسط(پنج و نیم میلیمتر) درجه­بندی شدند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل آزمون­های بلاتر، جوانه­زنی استاندارد، متوسط زمان جوانه­زنی، ظهور ریشه­چه، محتوی پروتئین و نشاسته بذرها بود. تأخیر در زمان کاشت و برداشت منجر به کاهش معنی­دار درصد محتوی پروتئین و نشاسته بذر شد. بیشترین درصد قارچ فوزاریوم متعلق به بذرهای حاصل از تاریخ کاشت سوم و رطوبت برداشت 15 درصد و کمترین آن به بذرهای تاریخ کاشت اول و رطوبت برداشت 25 درصد اختصاص داشت. با تأخیر در کاشت، کیفیت بذرهای تولیدی کاهش یافت که این کاهش با برداشت دیرهنگام و در بذرهای اندازه گرد بارزتر بود به طوری که در تاریخ کاشت سوم، رطوبت برداشت 15 درصد منجر به کاهش  حدود 14 درصدی گیاهچه عادی در بذرهای اندازه گرد شد. . حداقل درصد جوانه­زنی و بنیه بذر به بذرهای اندازه گرد حاصل از تاریخ کاشت سوم و رطوبت برداشت 15 درصد تعلق داشت.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of vigour, protein, starch content variations and seed health of hybrid maize(Zea mays L.) under effect of various planting dates and different harvest moisture contents in Moghan area

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bita Oskouei, 1
  • Aidin Hamidi 2
  • Saman Sheidaei 3
  • Hossein Sadeghi 4
  • Maryam Divsalar 2
  • Enayat Rezvani 2
  • Leila Zare 2
  • Mohammad Nouri 2
  • Shapoor Alizadeh 2
  • Atefeh Khandan 2
  • Jafar Rezazadeh 2
  • Jalal Momeni 2
1 Seed and Plant Certification and Registration (SPCRI)-Karaj
2 Seed and Plant Certification and Registration institute(SPCRI)
3 Seed and Plant Certification and Registration (SPCRI)-Karaj
چکیده [English]

This experiment was conducted to effect of changes in planting date and moisture content on vigor, protein and starch contents also seed health of corn (var sc704).Experiment was done in field of agricultural and natural resources research center in Ardebil province (Moghan) as randomized complet block in three replications Treats included: three levels of planting dates (10-May, 25- May and 9-june), four levels of seed moisture content at harvest time (30%, 25% and 15%). When cobs reached to desired moisture were air dried for getting 14% moisture content. Then the kernels were separated by laboratory sheller and graded to three sizesflat )7mm), round(6mm) and medium(5.5mm) by three sieves. Measured traits included: blotter test, standard germination, mean time to germination, radicle emergence, seed starch and protein contents. Delay in planting and harvesting caused to reduce in starch and protein content significantly. The highest fusarium infection percentage belonged to produced seeds in the third planting date when harvested with 15% moisture content and the lowest rate belonged to the first planting date 25% harvest moisture content. Delay in planting caused to reduced seed quality and low seed quality was highlighted in delayed harvest. Also the rate of decreasing in round seeds was more than flat and medium seeds so that the second planting date and 15% harvest moisture, resulting in a reduction of about 14 percent in normal seedlings in round seeds. . The minimum percentage of germination and vigor were seen in round seeds that produced at the third planting date and harvested by 15% moisture content.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corn
  • Fusarium
  • Planting date
  • seed quality
  • seed size
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