مطالعه میزان انتقال مجدد ماده خشک و فتوسنتز جاری در اندازه‌های متفاوت بذر چهار رقم گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) در اقلیم رشت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد علوم و تکنولوژی بذر دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان

2 اعضای هیأت علمی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان

3 دانشجوی دکترای زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر اندازه بذر بر روند تولید و تجمع ماده خشک و انتقال مجدد مواد فتوسنتزی به دانه در چهار رقم گندم نان، آزمایشی در پاییز سال زراعی 92-1391 در مزرعه پژوهشی موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور انجام شد. این آزمایش به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمار­های مورد بررسی در این تحقیق شامل اندازه قطر بذر در چهار سطح (25/2 تا 50/2 میلی­متر،50/2 تا 75/2 میلی­متر، 75/2 تا سه میلی­متر و بزرگ­تر از سه میلی­متر) و رقم (کوهدشت، مغان3، مروارید و ژنوتیپ بومی) بودند. نتایج نشان داد رقم تأثیر معنی­داری بر میزان فتوسنتز جاری، سرعت تشکیل عملکرد و عملکرد دانه داشت. اندازه بذر تأثیر معنی­داری بر میزان انتقال مجدد ماده خشک، کارایی انتقال مجدد، سهم انتقال مجدد، سهم فتوسنتز جاری، سرعت تشکیل عملکرد دانه، سرعت تشکیل عملکرد زیستی، عملکرد زیستی و عملکرد دانه داشت. بذر­های با اندازه بزرگ­تر از سه میلی­متر بیش­ترین میزان انتقال مجدد ماده خشک (17/345 گرم در متر مربع)، کارایی انتقال مجدد (28/32 درصد) و سهم انتقال مجدد (53/68 درصد) را به خود اختصاص دادند، در حالی­که بذر­های با اندازه 25/2 تا 5/2 میلی­متر بیش­ترین میزان سهم فتوسنتز جاری (5/55 درصد) را داشتند. رقم مروارید و بذر­های با اندازه 25/2 تا 5/2 میلی­متر کم­ترین مقدار سرعت تشکیل عملکرد زیستی (41/60 کیلو­گرم در هکتار در روز)، عملکرد زیستی (10542 کیلو­گرم در هکتار)، سرعت تشکیل دانه (77/17 کیلو­گرم در هکتار در روز) و عملکرد دانه (3/3101 کیلو­گرم در هکتار) را به خود اختصاص دادند. اثر متقابل تیمار­های آزمایشی در هیچ یک از صفات معنی­دار نبود. بنابراین، ژنوتیپ بومی و اندازه بذر 75/2 تا سه میلی­متر، به­علت توزیع بهتر مواد فتوسنتزی، از نظر صفات مهم عملکردی مناسب­تر بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study the amount of dry matter remobilization and current photosynthesis in different seed sizes of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in Rasht

نویسندگان [English]

  • Matin Forouzi 1
  • Seyed MohammadReza Ehteshami 2
  • Masoud Esfahani 2
  • Mohammad Rabiei 3
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of seed size on the production and dry matter accumulation and remobilization of assimilates to the grain of four bread wheat cultivars, an experiment was carried out in 2012-2013 in research farm of Rice Research Institute. A factorial experiment arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments in this study consist of four levels of seed diameter size (2.25- 2.5 mm, 2.5- 2.75 mm, 2.75- 3 mm and larger than 3 mm) and cultivars (Kohdasht, Moghan 3, Morvarid and native genotype). Results showed that cultivar had significant effect on amount of current photosynthesis, rate of yield accumulation and grain yield. Seed size had a significant effect on amount of dry matter remobilization, remobilization efficiency, contribution of remobilization, contribution of current photosynthesis, rate of grain yield accumulation, rate of biological yield accumulation, biological yield and grain yield. Seed with size greater than 3 mm had the maximum amount of dry matter remobilization (345.17 g.m-2), remobilization efficiency (32.28%) and contribution of remobilization (68.53%), while the seeds with size 2.25- 2.5 mm had the maximum contribution of current photosynthesis (55.5%). Morvarid cultivar and seed size 2.25- 2.5 mm had the lowest rate of biological yield accumulation (60.41 Kg.ha-1.day-2), biological yield (10542 Kg.ha-1), rate of grain accumulation (17.77 Kg.ha-1.day-2) and grain yield (3101.3 Kg.ha-1). The interaction of experimental treatments was significant in no one characteristic. Therefore, Native genotype and 2.75- 3 mm seed size due to better distribution of assimilates in important yield characteristics were more suitable.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bread wheat
  • Current photosynthesis
  • Grain yield
  • Remobilization
  • seed size
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