واکنش خواص فیزیکی و مکانیکی سوخ ژنوتیپ‌های پیاز خوراکی (Allium cepa L.) به پرایمینگ و اندازۀ بذر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه

2 استاد گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

به­منظور ارزیابی تأثیر پرایمینگ و اندازۀ بذر بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و مکانیکی سوخ ژنوتیپ‌های پیاز خوراکی این پژوهش در دو سال زراعی (1391و 1392) به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان شرقی اجرا شد. عوامل آزمایش شامل پرایمینگ در چهار سطح (هیدروپرایمینگ با آب مقطر، اسموپرایمینگ با نیترات پتاسیم، پرایمینگ با ماده فولامین و شاهد)، اندازه بذر در سه سطح (ریز، متوسط و درشت) و ارقام در دو سطح (قرمز آذرشهر و زرقان) بود. ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و مکانیکی شامل میانگین قطر حسابی و هندسی‌، ضریب‌ کرویت، مساحت سطح رویه، سطح برش عرضی سوخ، ضریب اصطکاک استاتیکی، زاویه  (انباشتگی) ریپوز پرکردن، زاویه ریپوز تخلیه و سرعت حد مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. اثر پرایمینگ و اندازه بذر از نظر تمام ویژگی مورد بررسی از لحاظ آماری تفاوت معنی‌دار نشان داد. نتایج نشان داد که پرایمینگ بذر موجب بهبود ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و مکانیکی سوخ شد به­طوری­که بیشترین میانگین قطر حسابی و هندسی ‌سوخ، مساحت سطح رویه، سرعت حد به­ترتیب 39/56 ،64/53، 27/36 میلی‌متر و 87/4 متر بر ثانیه به پرایمینگ با ماده فولامین تعلق داشت و کمترین آنها از تیمار شاهد به‌دست آمد. همچنین زاویه ریپوز پرکردن، زاویه ریپوز تخلیه به­ترتیب 7/46 و7/23 از تیمار شاهد و کمترین آنها از تیمار با ماده فولامین به‌دست آمد. بیشترین ضریب اصطکاک استاتیکی برابر 6/1 از تیمار شاهد مربوط به سطح چوب و کمترین آن برابر 67/0 از تیمار بذر با فولامین مربوط به سطح آهن‌گالوانیزه بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of physical and mechnical properties of onion (Allium cepa L.) genotypes bulb to seed priming and size

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mousa Izadkhah Shishvan 1
  • Mahdi Tajbakhsh Shishvan 2
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effect of seed priming and seed size on physical and mechnical properties of onion genotypes a factorial field experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2012 and 2013 cropping season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of East Azarbayjan, Iran. The experimental treatments included priming (at four levels: hydropriming, osmopriming (in %2 KNO3), priming with folammin amino acid (in 2%) and control (without priming), seed size (at three levels: small, medium, large) and cultivars (at two levels: RedAzarshahr and Zarguan). Following characteristics such as physical and mechnical properties include: arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, frontal surface area, cross-sectional of area onion, static coefficient of friction, angles of repose and terminal velocity  were studied. Analysis of variance for the measurd traits indicated that all characteristics significantly were affected by treatment and seed size. Results showed that seed priming and seed size improved physical and mechnical properties characteristics. The highest arithmetic, geometric mean diameter, frontal surface area, terminal velocity, were obtained from plant that primed with folammin amino acid 56.39,53.64, 36.27 mm 4.87 m/s, respectively, and the lowest were achieved from control plants. The highest repose angle filling and emptyin were obtained from control 46.7°, 23.17° respectively, and the lowest were achieved from primed with folamin. Also the highest static friction coefficient were obtained from control on plywood (1.6) and lowest were achieved from primed with folamin (0.67) on galvanized iron surfaces.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arithmetic mean diameter
  • Geometric mean diameter
  • Sphericity
  • Terminal velocity
Bahnasawy, A.H., El-Haddad, Z.A., El-Ansary, M.Y. and Sorour, H.M. 2004. Physical and mechanical properties of some Egyptian onion cultivars. Journal of Food Engineering, 62: 255-261. (Journal)

Bakhtyari Konari, F., Saeidi Rad, M.H., Karageyn, H., Shraie, P. and Arainfar, A. 2012. Comparison and investigation some physical properties of onion saffron with cover and without cover. Innovation Journal of Food Science Technology, 5 (2): 70-81.(In Farsi) (Journal)

Baryeh, E.A. 2002. Physical properties of millet. Journal of Food Engineering, 51: 39-46. (Journal)

Brewster, J.L. 2008. Onions and other vegetable alliums. 2nd ed., CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. (Book)

Corzo-Martinez, M., Corzo, N. and Villamiel, M. 2007. Biological properties of onions and garlic. Trends Food Science Technology, 18 (12): 609-625. (Journal)

Devaraju, P.J., Nagamani, S., Veere Gowda, R., Yogeesha, H.S., Gowda, R., Nagaraju, K. and Shashidhara, S. 2011. Effect of chemo priming on plant growth and bulb yield in onion. International Journal of Agriculture, Enviroment and Biotechnology, 4 (2):121-123. (Journal)

Dhumal, K., Datir, S. and Pandey, R. 2006. Assessement of bulb pungency level in different Indian cultivars of onion (Allium cepa L.). Food Chemistry, 100: 1328–1330. (Journal)

Dorna, H., Jarosz, M., Szopinska, D., Szulc, I. and Rosinska, A. 2013. Germanation, vigour and health of primed Allium cepa L. seeds after storage. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus, 12 (4): 43-58. (Journal)

Droudgar, H., Khojastepour, M., Emadi, B. and Saeidi-e-Rad, M.H. 2013. Study some physical and mechanical properties of Ghasry melon. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 9 (2): 175-181. (In Farsi) (Journal)

Farooq, M., Basra, M.A., Wahid, A., Ahmad, N. and Saleem, B.A. 2009. Induction of drought tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 195: 237–246. (Journal)

Faten, S.A., Shaheen, A.M., Ahmed, A.A. and Mahmoud, A.R. 2010. Effect of foliar application of amino acids as antioxidants on growth, yield and characteristics of Squash. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science, 6(5): 583-588. (Journal)

Fathollahzadeh, H., Mobli, H., Tavakkoli, M., Ebrahimzadeh, M.R. and Tabatabaie, S.M.H. 2009. Some physical properties of Sonnati Salmas apricot pit. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript 1157.Vol. XI. May. (Journal)

Gamiel, S., Smittle, D.A. and Mills. H.A. 1990. Onion seed size, weight, and elemental content affect germination and bulb yield. Horticultural Science, 25 (5): 522-523. (Journal)

Ghabel, R., Rajabipour, A., Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, M. and Oveisi, M. 2010. Modeling the mass of Iranian export onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties using some physical characteristics. Agricultural Engineering Research, 56(1): 33–40. (Journal)

Ghaffari, H., Marghoub, N., Shirazi, M., Sheikh, N., Darabadi, S., Hakimi, A. and Abbasi, F. 2013. Physical properties of three Iranian onion varieties. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 7(9): 587-593. (In Farsi) (Journal)

Ghamari, S., Rabbani, H. and Khazaei, J. 2011. Mathematical models for predicting the terminal velocity of chickpea, rice and lentil. World Applied Sciences Journal, 15 (11): 1557-1561. (Journal)

Haromoto, E.R. and Gallandt, E.R. 2005. Brassica cover cropping: II. Effects on growth and interference of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and red root pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Weed Science, 53 (5): 702-708. (Journal)

Jonesa, D., Shannon, D., Junvee, F., Thippaya, F. and John, F. 2005. Plant capture of free amino acids is maximized under high soil amino acid concentrations. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37:179–181. (Journal)

Kabas, O., Ozmerzi, A. and Akinci, I. 2005. Physical properties of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus India L.) grown wild in Turkey. Journal of Food Engineering, 73: 198–202. (Journal)

Kilickan, A. and Guner, M. 2008. Physical properties and mechanical behavior of olive fruits (Olea europaea L.) under compression loading. Journal of Food Engineering, 87: 222–228. (Journal)

Martinz, M.C., Corzo, N. and Villiamiel, M. 2007. Biological properties of onion and garlic. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 18 (12): 609-625. (Journal)

Meisami-asl, E., Rafiee, S., Keyhani A. and Tabatabaeefar, A. 2009. Some physical properties of apple CV. ‘Golab’. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript 1124.Vol. XI. March. (Journal)

Mohsenin, N.N. 1986. Physical properties of plant and animal materials. New York, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers: 20–89. (Book)

Rabbani, H. 2007. Determination of aerodynamic properties of Chickpea, Ph.D. Thesis. Agricultural Machinery Mechanical Engineering. University of Tehran, Iran. (In Farsi)

 

Rabinowitch, H.D. and Brewster J.L. 1990. Onions and Allied Crops. CRC. Press, Inc. Boca Raton. Florida, 3, 1-60. (Book)

Razavi, S.M.A. and Milani, E. 2006. Some physical properties of the watermelon seeds. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 1 (3): 65-69. (Journal)

Razavi, S.M.A., Mazaherinasab, M., Nickfar, F. and Sanaeefard, H. 2008. Physical properties and image analysis of wild pistachio nut (Baneh). Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 3(2): 62-70. (In Farsi) (Journal)

Sacilik, K., Ozturk, R. and Keskin, R. 2003. Some physical properties of hemp seed. Biosystems Engineering, 86: 191-198. (Journal)

Sadrnia, H., Rajabipour, A., Javadi, A., Jafari, A. and Mostoufi, Y. 2001. Comperssion mechanical and physical properties in two watermelon cultivars (Charleston Gray and Krimson sweet). Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 7(28): 151-166.(In Farsi) (Journal)

Singh, K.P. 2000. Response of graded level of nitrogen in tuberose cultivar single. Advanced Plant Sciences, 13(1): 283-285. (Journal)

Sirisomboon, P., Kitchaiya, P., Pholpho, T. and Mahuttanyavanitch, W. 2007. Physical and mechanical properties of Jatropha curcas L. fruits, nuts and kernels. Biosystem Engineering, 97: 201–207. (Journal)

Spurr, C.J., Fulton, D.A., Brown, P.H. and Clark, R.J. 2002. Changes in seed yield and quality in onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Early Cream Gold. Journal of Agronomy Science, 188: 275-280. (Journal)

Tajbakhsh, M. and M. Ghiyas.2008. Seed ecology. Urmia University Publication, pp.389. (In Farsi) (Book)

Taylor, N., Day, D.A. and Millar, A.H. 2004. Targets of stress induced oxidative damage in plant mitochondria and their impact on cell carbon/nitrogen metabolism. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55: 1-10. (Journal)

Wallsgrove, R.M. 1995. Amino acids and their derivatives in higher plants. Cambridge University Press, 294 pp. (Book)

Yarnia, M., Farajzadeh, E. and Tabrizi, M. 2012. Effect of seed priming with different concentration of GA3, IAA and Kinetin on Azarshahr onion germination and seedling growth. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2 (3): 2657-2661. (Journal)