Effect of sodium nitroprusside pretreatment on germination improvement and early growth of black cumin (Nigella sativa) under salinity stress

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Plant Productions, Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran

2 PhD graduated in Agriculture - Crop Physiology, Ilam University. Ilam. Iran


To evaluate the effect of sodium nitroprusside on some physiological and germination indices of black cumin (Nigella sativa) under salinity stress, an experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications at research laboratory of Agricultural Faculty, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Treatments included sodium nitroprusside at three levels (0, 50 and 100 μmol) as the first factor and three levels of salinity stress (0, 50 and 100 mmol) as the second factor. The results showed that increasing salinity stress caused the reduction of all traits of germination index (germination percentage and rate, seed vigor index, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of root, stem and seedling and leaf relative water content), while 100 μmol salinity level caused an increasing of 52.2% in proline content as compared to control. Application of sodium nitroprusside increased all traits (except proline, which had no significant effect on this trait). Seeds which were primed with 100 μmol sodium nitroprusside caused an increment of 54.2, 47.7, 63.6, 20.2 % in germination rate and percentage, seed vigor index and relative water content compared with non-treated seeds at the highest level of salinity stress, respectively. Finally, the application of this plant growth regulator in this experiment enhanced germination indices and relative water content of black cumin seedling.


Abdul-baki, A.A. and Anderson, J.D. 1970. Viability and leaching of sugars from germinating barely. Crop Science, 10: 31-34. (Journal)
Ahmad, P., Alam, P., Balawi, T.H., Altalayan, F.H., Ahanger, M.A. and Ashraf, M. 2020. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) improves tolerance to arsenic (As) toxicity in Vicia faba through the modifications of biochemical attributes, antioxidants, ascorbate-glutathione cycle and glyoxalase cycle. Chemosphere, 244: 125480. (Journal)
Ahmadi, F.I., Karimi, K. and Struik, P.C. 2018. Effect of exogenous application of methyl jasmonate on physiological and biochemical characteristics of Brassica napus L. cv. Talaye under salinity stress. South African Journal of Botany, 115: 5-11. (Journal)
Ali, Q., Daud, M.K., Haider, M.Z., Ali, S., Rizwan, M., Aslam, N., Noman, A., Iqbal, N., Shahzad, F., Deeba, F., Ali, I. and Zhu, S.J. 2017. Seed priming by sodium nitroprusside improves salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by enhancing physiological and biochemical parameters. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 119: 50-58. (Journal)
Almodares, A., Hadi, M.R. and Dosti, B. 2007. Effect of salt stress on germination percentage and seedling growth in sweet sorghum cultivars. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 7: 1492-1495. (Journal)
Asadi-Sanam, S., Zavareh, M., Pirdashti, H., Mirjalili, M.H. and Hashempour, A. 2014. Effect of exogenous nitric oxide on germination and some of biochemical characteristics of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.) in saline condition. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology, 6: 55-75. (In Persian)(Journal)
Balouchi, H., Yadavi, A. and Movahedi Dehnavi, M. 2012. Effect of Osmotic Stress on Seed Germination Indices of Nigella sativa and Silybum marianum. Journal of Crop and Weed Ecophysiology, 5(4):97-108. (In Persian)(Journal)
Bates, L.S. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil, 39: 205-207. (Journal)
Dadkhah, A. 2010. Salinity effect on germination and seedling growth of four medicinal plants. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 26: 358-369. (In Persian)(Journal)
Eslami, V., Behdani, M.A. and Ali, S. 2009. Effect of salinity on germination characteristics and early seedling growth of canola cultivars (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 1: 39-46. (In Persian)(Journal)
Fan, H.F., Du, C.X., Ding, L. and Xu, Y.L. 2013. Effects of nitric oxide on the germination of cucumber seeds and antioxidant enzymes under salinity stress. Acta Physiology Plantarum, 35: 2707-2719. (Journal)
Farhangi-Abriz, S. and Torabian, S. 2017. Antioxidant enzyme and osmotic adjustment changes in bean seedlings as affected by biochar under salt stress. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 137: 64-70. (Journal)
Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Wahid, A. and Rehman, H. 2009. Exogenously applied nitric oxide enhances the drought tolerance in fine grain aromatic rice. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 195: 254-261. (Journal)
Fathi, A., Baradaran, M. and Amerian, M.R. 2018. The effect of nitric oxide on seed germination and activities of some antioxidant enzymes in sesame under salt stress. Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Research, 5: 77-88. (In Persian)(Journal)
Feghhenabi, F., Hadi, H., Khodaverdiloo, H. and Van Genuchten, M.T. 2020. Seed priming alleviated salinity stress during germination and emergence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Agricultural Water Management, 231, 106022. (Journal)
Giba, Z., Grubisic, D., Todorovic, S., Sajc, L., Stojakovic, D. and Konjevic, R. 1998. Effect of nitric oxide releasing compounds on phytochromecontrolled germination of empress tree seeds. Plant Growth Regulators, 26: 175-181. (Journal)
Golkar, P., Bakhshi, G. and Vahabi, M.R. 2020. Phytochemical, biochemical, and growth changes in response to salinity in callus cultures of Nigella sativa L. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Plant, 56: 247-258. (Journal)
Goorgini Shabankareh, A. and Khorasani nejad, S. 2018. Effects of sodium nitroprusside on physiological, biochemical and essence characteristics of savory (Satureja khuzestanica) under deficit water regimes. Journal of Plant Production Research, 24: 56-70. (In Persian)(Journal)
Habib, N. and Ashraf, M. 2014. Effect of exogenously applied nitric oxide on water relations and ionic composition of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under salt stress. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 46: 111-116. (Journal)
He, J., Ren, Y., Chen, X. and Chen, H. 2014. Protective roles of nitric oxide on seed germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under cadmium stress. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 108: 114-119. (Journal)
Hesami, M., Tohidfar, M., Alizadeh, M. and Daneshvar, M.H. 2020. Effects of sodium nitroprusside on callus browning of Ficus religiosa: an important medicinal plant. Journal of Forestry Research, 31(3):789-796. (Journal)
Jalilzadehkhooei, A. and Jabarzadeh, Z. 2017. Effect of nitric oxide application on germination of Poa pratensis under salinity stress. The first International Conference and the 10th
National Congress of Horticultural Sciences of Iran, 13-16 September, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Pp: 98. (In Persian)(Conference)
Javadi, H., Seghatol Eslami, M.J. and Moosavi, Gh.R. 2014. Effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth of four medicinal plant species. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 12: 53-64. (In Persian)(Journal)
Kabiri, R. and Naghizadeh, M. 2015. Study the effects of Salicylic acid pretreatment on germination and early growth of black cumin (Nigella sativa) under salinity stress. Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Technology, 1: 61-72. (In Persian)(Journal)
Karami, A. and Sepehri, A. 2018. Effect of nano titanium dioxide and sodium nitroprusside on seed germination, vigor index and antioxidant enzymes of Afzal barley seedling under salinity stress. Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Research, 5: 47-61. (In Persian)(Journal)
Karthik, S., Pavan, G., Krishnan, V., Sathish, S. and Manickavasagam, M. 2019. Sodium nitroprusside enhances regeneration and alleviates salinity stress in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 19:101173. (Journal)
Kataria, S., Baghel, L. and Guruprasad, K.N., 2017. Pre-treatment of seeds with static magnetic field improves germination and early growth characteristics under salt stress in maize and soybean. Biocatalysis Agric. Biotechnol, 10: 83–90. (Journal)
Kaya, M.D. and Day, S. 2008. Relationship between seed size and NaCl on germination, seed vigor and early seedling growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 3: 787-791. (Journal)
Khammari, I., Sarani, Sh.A. and Dahmardeh, M. 2007. The effect of salinity on seed germination and growth in six medicinal plants. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 23: 331-339. (In Persian)(Journal)
Kopyra, M. and Gwózdz, E.A. 2003. Nitric oxide stimulates seed germination and counteracts the inhibitory effect of heavy metals and salinity on root growth of Lupinus luteus. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 41:1011-1017. (Journal)
Lei, Y., Yin, C., Ren, J. and Li, C. 2007. Effect of osmotic stress and sodium nitroprusside pretreatment on proline metabolism of wheat seedlings. Biologia Plantarum, 516: 386-390. (Journal)
Li, Q.Y., Niu, H.B., Yin, J., Wang, M.B., Shao, H.B., Deng, D.Z., Chen, X.X., Ren, J.P. and Li, Y.C. 2008. Protective role of exogenous nitric oxide against oxidative stress induced by salt stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 56: 220-225. (Journal)
Li, Z., Pei, X., Yin, S., Lang, X., Zhao, X. and Qu, G.Z. 2019. Plant hormone treatments to alleviate the effects of salt stress on germination of Betula platyphylla seeds. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 30 (3):779–787. (Journal)
Maguire, J.D. 1962. Speed of germination-aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigor. Crop Science, 2: 176-177. (Journal)
Migahid, M.M., Elghobashy, R.M., Bidak, L.M. and Amin, A.W. 2019. Priming of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn seeds with H2O2 and magnetic field ameliorates seawater stress. Heliyon, 5 (6): e01886. (Journal)
Nabaei, M. and Amooaghaie, R. 2019. Interactive effect of melatonin and sodium nitroprusside on seed germination and seedling growth of Catharanthus roseus under cadmium stress. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 66(1):128-139. (Journal)
Neill, S., Barros, R., Bright, J., Desikan, R., Hancock, J., Harrison, J., Morris, P., Ribeiro, D. and Wilson, I. 2008. Nitricoxide, stomatal closure, and abiotic stress. Journal of Experimental Botany, 59:165-176. (Journal)
Papastylianou, P., Bakogianni, N.N., Travlos, I. and Roussis, I. 2018. Sensitivity of seed germination to salt stress in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 46: 202-205. (Journal)
Pirasteh-Anosheh, H. and Emam, Y. 2019. The role of plant growth regulators in enhancing crop yield under saline conditions: from theory to practice. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 21: 188-209. (In Persian)(Journal)
Qu, X.X., Huang, Z.Y., Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. 2008. Effect of temperature, light and salinity on seed germination and radicle growth of the geographically widespread holophyte shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum. Annals of Botany, 101: 293- 299. (Journal)
Rahimi, A., Shamsodin Saeed, M. and Etemadi, F. 2011. Effects of salt stress on germination, growth and ion contents of Cumin (Nigella sativa L.). Arid Biom Scientific and Research Journal, 1(2): 21-29. (In Persian)(Journal).
Raissi, M.A., Asrar, Z. and Pourseyedi, Sh. 2010. Interaction of sodium nitroprusside and copper on some growth and physiologic parameters of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.). Iranian Journal of Plant Biology, 1: 55-76. (In Persian)(Journal)
Ramezani, E., Ghajar-Sepanlou, M. and Ali Naghdi Badi, H. 2011. The effect of salinity on the growth, morphology and physiology of Echium amoenum Fisch. and Mey. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10: 8765-8773. (Journal)
Ren, Y., He, J., Liu, H., Liu, G. and Ren, X. 2017. Nitric oxide alleviates deterioration and preserves antioxidant properties in ‘Tainong’ mango fruit during ripening. Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology, 58: 27-37. (Journal)
Rezapour, R., Ganjali, A. and Abrishamchi P. 2019. Study of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and salt stress interaction on some traits of canola plant (Brassica napus L.cv. Modena). Journal of Plant Research (Iranian Journal of Biology), 32: 319-331. (In Persian)(Journal)
Ruan, H.H., Shen, W.B. and Xu, L.L. 2004. Nitric oxide modulates the activities of plasma membrane ATPase and PPase in wheat seedling roots and promotes the salt tolerance against salt stress. Acta Botanica Sinica, 46: 415-422. (Journal)
Saddiq, M.S., Iqbal, S., Afzal, I., Ibrahim, A.M.H., Bakhtavar, M.A., Hafeez, M.B., Maqbool, J. and Maqbool, M.M. 2019. Mitigation of salinity stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings through physiological seed enhancements. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 42(10): 1-13. (Journal)
Safarnejad, A., Ali Sadr S.V. and Hamidi H. 2007. Effect of salinity stress on morphological characters of Nigella sativa. Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research, 15: 75-84. (In Persian)(Journal)
Sarropoulou, V. and Maloupa, E. 2017. Effect of the NO donor “sodium nitroprusside” (SNP), the ethylene inhibitor “cobalt chloride” (CoCl 2) and the antioxidant vitamin E “α-tocopherol” on in vitro shoot proliferation of Sideritis raeseri Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. raeseri. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC),128(3): 619-629. (Journal)
Seghatol Eslami, M.J. 2010. Effect of salt stress on germination of Satureja hortensis L., Cichorium intybus L. and Cynara scolymus L. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 8: 818-823. (In Persian)(Journal)
Sepehri, A. and Karami, A. 2019. Effect of MWCNT and sodium nitroprusside on growth and physiological characteristics of barley seedlings under salinity stress. 2nd international and 6th national confrence on organic va. conventional agriculture, 13-16 September, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, pp: 22. (In Persian)(Conference)
Silveira, N.M., Frungillo, L., Marcos, F.C.C., Pelegrino, M.T., Miranda, M.T., Seabra, A.B., Salgado, I., Machado, E.C. and Ribeiro, R.V. 2016. Exogenous nitric oxide improves sugarcane growth and photosynthesis under water deficit. Planta, 244: 181-190. (Journal)
Song, L.L., Yue, L.L., Zhao, H.Q. and Hou, M.F. 2013. Protection effect of nitric oxide on photosynthesis in rice under heat stress. Acta Physiology Plantarum, 35: 3323-3333. (Journal)
Subramanyam, K., Laing, G.D. and Van Damme, E.J.M. 2019. Sodium selenate treatment using a combination of seed priming and foliar spray alleviates salinity stress in rice. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10: 1-17. (Journal)
Taie, H.A.A., Abdelhamid, M.T., Dawood, M.G. and Nassar, R.M.A. 2013. Pre-sowing seed treatment with proline improves some physiological, biochemical and anatomical attributes of faba bean plants under sea water. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 9(4): 2853–2867. (Journal)
Tian, X. and Lei, Y. 2006. Nitric oxide treatment alleviates drought stress in wheat seedlings. Plant Biology, 50(4): 775-778. (Journal)
Uchida, A., Jagendorf, A.T., Hibino, T., Takabe, T. and Takabe, T. 2002. Effects of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide on both salt and heat stress tolerance in rice. Plant Science, 163: 515-523. (Journal)
Vaishnav, A., Jain, S., Kasotia, A., Kumari, S., Gaur, R.K. and Choudhary, D.K. 2013. Effect of nitric oxide signaling in bacterial-treated soybean plant under salt stress. Archives of microbiology, 195: 571-577. (Journal)
Wheutherley, P.E. 1950. Studies in water relations of cotton plants. The field measurement of water deficit in leaves. New Phytologist, 49: 81-87. (Journal)
Yan, F., Liu, Y., Sheng, H., Wang, Y., Kang, H. and Zeng, J. 2016. Salicylic acid and nitric oxide increase photosynthesis and antioxidant defense in wheat under UV-B stress. Biologia Plantarum, 60: 686-69. (Journal)  
Yildiztugay, E., Ozfidan-Konakci, C. and Kucukoduk, M. 2014. Exogenous nitric oxide (as sodium nitroprusside) ameliorates polyethylene glycol-induced osmotic stress in hydroponically grown maize roots. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 33: 683-696. (Journal)
Zeeshan, M., Lu, M., Sehar, S., Holford, P. and Wu, F. 2020. Comparison of biochemical, anatomical, morphological, and physiological responses to salinity stress in wheat and barley genotypes deferring in salinity tolerance. Agronomy, 10: 127. (Journal)
Zehtab-Samasi, S. 2008. The influence salinity and seed pre-treatment on the germination of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Agronomy Research, 2: 28-30. (Journal)
Zhang, W., Yu, X., Li, M., Lang, D., Zhang, X. and Xie, Z. 2018. Silicon promotes growth and root yield of Glycyrrhiza uralensis under salt and drought stresses through enhancing osmotic adjustment and regulating antioxidant metabolism. Crop Protection, 107: 1-11. (Journal)
Zhang, Y., Wang, L., Liu, Y., Zhang, Q., Wei, Q. and Zhang, W. 2006. Nitric oxide enhances alt tolerance in maize seedlings through increasing activities of proton-pump and Na+/H+ antiport in the tonoplast. Planta, 224(3): 545-555. (Journal)
Zheng, C., Jiang, D., Liu, F., Dai, T., Liu, W., Jing, Q. and Cao, W. 2009. Exogenous nitric oxide improves seed germination in wheat against mitochondrial oxidative damage induced by high salinity. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 67: 222-227. (Journal)