Effect of ultra-sonic waves on germination, some germination enzymes and biochemical parameters of Echinacea purpurea L. seed

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran

2 Faculty member, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran


One of the biophysical methods of seed priming is seed pretreatment with ultrasonic wave. Continuous ultrasonic pulses increase the permeability of seeds shells, accelerate the absorption of water and increase the temperature of the tissues. Increase in turgescence rate and tissues temperature of the seeds treated with ultrasonic wave may be associated with accelerated changes in seed metabolism. Germination of Echinacea purpurea seeds is weak and irregular, which is caused by seed dormancy, so in order to investigation the effect of ultrasound waves on germination, some germination enzymes and biochemical treatiesof coneflower (Echinacea purpureaL.)seeds, in 2017, an experiment was conducted as completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 4 replications in Agriculture Faculty of Shahrood University of Technology. Experimental treatments consisted of ultrasound waves at 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25 minutes with ultrasonic device with a constant power of 50 watts at 25°C. The results of analysis of variance showed that ultrasound treatment showed a significant effect on measured traits. Ultrasound waves increased the activity of α-amylase, protease, alcohol dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and increased total protein and soluble sugar concentrations in most treatments than control. By increasing alpha-amylase, protease, alcohol dehydrogenase, anginas and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity increased germination percentage, germination rate and seedling dry weight. In most traits, the duration of 15 minutes of treatment with ultrasonic waves showed the highest enzymes activity and germination indexes, So 15 min ultrasonic wave at 25℃ and 50 watt power for improving germination and germination treats in coneflower seeds suggested


Atwater, B.R. 1980. Germination, dormancy, and morphology of the seeds of herbaceous ornamental plants. Seed Science and Technology, 8: 523-73. (Journal)
Bais, H.P., Park, S.W., Weir, T.L., Callaway, R.M. and Vivanco, J.M. 2004. How plants communicate using the underground information superhighway. Trends in Plant Science, 9: 26-32. (Journal)
Bradford, M.M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72: 248-254. (Journal)
Carlberg, I. and Mannervik, B. 1985. Glutathione reductase. Methods inEnzymology, 113: 484-490. (Journal)
Chen, G., Wanga, Q., Liu, Y., Li, Y., Cui, J., Liu, Y., Liu, H. and Zhang, Y. 2012. Modelling analysis for enhancing seed vigour of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) using an ultrasonic technique. Biomass and Bioenergy, 47: 426 -435. (Journal)
Cheryl-Kaiser, C., Geneve, R. and Ernst, M. 2015. Echinacea. University of Kentucky Press, 120p. (Book)
Chinard, F.P. 1952. Photometric estimation of proline and ornithine,The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 199:91–95. (Journal)
Copeland, L.O. and McDonald, M.B. 1936. Principles of Seed Science and Technology. (Book)
Deutsch, J. 1983. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In: H.U. Bergmeyer, editor. Methods of enzymatic analysism 3rd english ed. Weinheim: VerlagChemie, 191-197. (Book)
Eastmond, P., Kolacna, L. and Rawsthorne, S. 1996. Photosynthesis by developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Experimental Botany, 47: 1763–1769. (Journal)
Foti, S., Cosentino, S.L., Patane, C. and Agosta, G.M.D. 2002. Effects of osmoconditioning upon seed germination of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) under low temperatures. Seed Science and Technology, 30(3): 521-533. (Journal)
Firenzuoli, A.M., Vanni, P., Ramponi, G. and Baccari, V. 1968. Changes in enzyme levels during germination of seeds of Triticum durum. Planit Physiology, 43: 260-264. (Journal)
Foyer, C.H. and Noctor, G. 2011. Ascorbate and glutathione: the heart of the redox hub. Plant Physiology, 155(1): 2-18. (Journal)
Goldraij, A. and Polacco, J.C. 1999. Arginase is inoperative in developing soybean embryos. Plant Physiology, 119: 297–303. (Journal)
Greenberg, D.M. 1955. Enzymes of protein metabolism. Methodsin Enzymology, 2: 368–374. (Journal)
Guglieminetti, L., Yamaguchi, J., Perata, P. and Alpi, A. 1995. Amylolytic activities in cereal seeds under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Plant Physiology, 109: 1669-1676. (Journal)
Kang, F. and Rawsthorne, S. 1996. Metabolism of glucose-6-phosphate and utilization of multiple metabolites for fatty acid synthesis by plastids from developing oilseed rape embryos. Planta, 199: 321–327. (Journal)
Kim, H.J., Feng, H., Kushad, M.M. and Fan, X.T. 2006. Effects of ultrasound, irradiation, and acidic electrolyzed water on germination of alfalfa and broccoli seeds and Escherichia coli157: H7. Journal of Food Science, 71: 168- 173. (Journal)
Li, T.S.C. 1998. Echinacea: cultivation and medicinal value. Horticultural Science and Technology, 8: 22–129. (Journal)
Lipiec, J., Janas, P. and Barabasz, W. 2004. Effect of oscillating magnetic field pulses on the survival of selected microorganisms. International Agrophysics, 18: 325-328. (Journal)
Machikowa, T., Kulrattanarak, T. and Wonprasaid, S. 2013. Effects of ultrasonic treatment on germination of synthetic sunflower seeds. International Journal of Agriculture and Biological Engineering, 7: 11-18. (Journal)
Markwell, M.A.K., Hass, S.M., Tolbert, N.E. and Bieber, L.L. 1981. Protein determination in membrance and lipoprotein samples: manual and automated procedure. Methods in Enzymology, 72: 296-303. (Journal)
Marambe, B., Ando, T. and Kouno, K. 1992. Alpha-amylase and protease activities and water relations in germinating sorghum (Sorghum bicolor moench) seeds as affected by animal-waste composts. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 38 (1): 123-131. (Journal)
McCready, R.M., Guggolz, J., Silviera, V. and Owens, H.S. 1950. Determination of starch and amylase in vegetables. Analytical Chemistry, 22: 1156-1158. (Journal)
Meloni, D.A., Oliva, M.A., Martinez, C. and Cambraia, J. 2003. Photosynthesis and activity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cotton under salt stress. Environment and Experimental Botany, 49: 69-76. (Journal)
Omokolo, D., Ndoumou, G., Ndzomo, T. and Djocgoue, P.F. 1996. Changes in carbohydrate, amino acid and phenol contents in cocoa pods from three clones after infection with Phytophthora megakarya Bra and Grif. Annals of Botany,77: 153-158. (Journal)
Rasouli, F. 2018. The effect of ultrasonic-wave, jasmonic acid and salycilic acid on growth and some qulitive triates of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni L and Echinacea purpurea L. Ph.D Dissertation, Shahrood University of Technology, Iran. (In Persian)(Thesis)
Rasouli, F., Motaharynegad, H., Amini, G.H. and Gholipoor, M. 2015. The effect of ultra sound power and time on some germination characteristics basil. National Congress of Medicinal Plants. 18-19 January, 2015, Shahrood University of Technology, Iran. (In Persian)(Conference)
Razavinia, C.M., Aghaalykany, M. and Naghdabadi, H. 2015. The effect of vermicomposting and chemical fertilizer on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 31: 373-357. (In Persian)(Journal)
Roubelakis, K.A. and Kliewer, W.M. 1978. Enzymes of Krebs–Henseleit in Vitis vinifera L. Plant Physiology, 62:344–347. (Journal)
Sleper, D., Pathan, M.S., Camps-Raga, B., Boriraksantikul, N., Tantong, S., Gyawali, S.R., Kirawanich, P. and Islam, N.E. 2008. Experimental analysis of corn seed germination enhancement under the application of electromagnetic and magnetic fields. Proceeding of the European Electromagnetics (EUROEM 2008), Lausanne, Switzerland. (Conference)
Shin, Y.K., Baque, M.A., Elghamedi, S., Lee, E.J. and Paek, K.Y. 2011. Effects of activated charcoal, plant growth regulators and ultrasonic pre-treatments on in vitro germination and protocorm formation of calanthe hybrids. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5: 582- 588. (Journal)
Smith-Jochum, C.C. and Albrecht, M.L. 1987. Field establishment of three Echinacea species for commercial production. Acta Horticulture, 208: 115-18. (Journal)
Soltani, A. and Maddah, V. 2010. Simple Applied Programs for Education and Research in Agronomy. Issa Press. (Book)
Tuan-hua ho, D. and Scandalios, J.G. 1975. Regulation of Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Maize Scutellum during Germination. Plant Physiology, 56: 56-59. (Journal)
Yaldagard, M., Mortazavi, S.A. and Tabatabaie, F. 2008. Application of ultrasonic waves as a priming technique for accelerating and enhancing the germination of barley seed: optimization of method by the taguchi approach. Journal of The Institute of Brewing, 114: 14-21. (Journal)
Zarei-Ghadikolaee, M., Abdolzadeh, A. and Sadeghipour, H.M. 2010 Arginase, glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in moist chilled and warm-incubated walnut kernels. Trees, 24: 425–433. (Journal)