Effect of environmental factors on some seed germination aspects of two populations of common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc Graduated of Agronomy, Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran


In the present study, germination behavior of two populations of Xanthium strumarium in different controlled conditions was investigated. For this purpose, seeds of Xanthium strumariumwere collected randomly from several farms in Karaj and Ahvaz. In first study, germination behavior of two populations of Xanthium strumarium investigated in different constant temperature, temperature fluctuations, periods of darkness / lighting and high temperature. The maximum seed germination in constant temperature was observed at 30 C in Karaj population (85.25%) and Ahwaz population (87.75%) at 30 C. while in temperature fluctuations Maximum seed germination was observed at 20/30 C in Karaj population (93.25%) and Ahwaz population (96.75%). Seeds of two populations were able to germinate at a wide range of temperatures. Different periods of dark / light showed no significant effect on seed germination of two populations. High temperatures an above 100 ° C caused a significant reduction in germination but Ahvaz population resistance was more than Karaj population in high temperatures. Using the result of this research we may manage better this weed especially through non-chemical methods. It should be noted that non-chemical methods such as flooding, controls of mechanical, thermal, solarization and mulch can be recommended with more time for Ahvaz population. 


Abin, A. and Eslami, S.V. 2009. Influence of maternal environment on salinity and drought tolerance of annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) at germination and emergence stage. Iranian Weed Research Journal, 1(2): 1-12. (In Persian))Journal)
Benech-Arnold, R.L., Sánchez, R.A., Forcella, F., Kruk, B.C. and Ghersa, C.M. 2000. Environmental control of dormancy in weed seed banks in soil. Field Crops Research, 67: 105-122. )Journal)
Chachalis, D. and Ready, K.N. 2000. Factors affecting Campsis radicans seed germination and seedling emergence. Weed Science, 48: 212-216. )Journal)
Chauhan, B.S. and Johnson, D.E. 2008. Germination ecology of southern crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris) and India crabgrass (Digitaria longiflora): two important weeds of rice in tropics. Weed Science, 56: 722-728. )Journal)
Dorado, J., Sousa, E., Calha, I.M., González-Andújar, J.L. and Fernández-Quintanilla, C. 2009. Predicting weed emergence in maize crops under two contrasting climatic conditions. Weed Research, 49: 251-260. )Journal)
Evetts, L.L. and Burnside, O.C. 1972. Germination and seedling developmentof common milkweed and other species. Weed Science, 20: 371–378. )Journal)
Foroghi, A., Gherkhlo, J. and Ghaderifar, F. 2014. Row spacing and common cocklebur interference effect on grain yield and its components of two sesame cultivars in Gorgan. Electronic Journal of Crop Production, 6 (2): 101-116. (In Persian)(Journal)
Gessler, N. and Pessarakli, M. 2009. Growth responses and nitrogen uptake of saltgrass under salinity stress. Turfgrass, Landscape and Urban IPM Research Summary, (P-157). )Report)
Golzardi, F., Vazan, S., Moosavinia, H. and Tohidloo, G. 2012. Effects of salt and drought stresses on germination and seedling growth of swallow wort (Cynanchum acutum L.). Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 4(21): 4524-4529. )Journal)
Jain, R. and Singh, M. 1989. Factors affecting goatweed (Scoparia dulcis) seed germination. Weed Science, 37: 766–770. )Journal)
Karimmojeni, H., Zareh, A., Keshtkar, E., Rahimian Mashhadi, H. and Alizadeh, H.M. 2010a. Seed dormancy breaking and stimulation of germination in Xanthium strumarium L. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 41(3): 503-511. (In Persian))Journal)
Karimmojeni, H., Mashhadi, H.R., Alizadeh, H., Cousens, R.D., Mesgaran, M.B. 2010b. Interference between maize and Xanthium strumarium or Datura stramonium. Weed Research, 50: 253-261. )Journal)
Keddy, P.A. and Ellis, T.H. 1985. Seedling recruitment of 11 wetland plant species along a water level gradient: shared or distinct responses? Canadian Journal of Botany, 63: 1876–1879. )Journal)
Nandula, V.K., Eubank, T.W., Poston, D.H., Koger, C.H. and Reddy, K.N. 2006. Factors affecting germination of horseweed (Conyza Canadensis). Weed Science, 54: 898-902. )Journal)
Norsworthy, J.K. and Oliveira, M.J. 2007. Light and temperature requirements for common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) germination during after-ripening under field conditions. Weed Science, 55: 227-234. )Journal)
Radosevich, S.R., Holt, J.S. and Ghersa, C.M. 2007. Ecology of Weed and Invasive Plants: Relationship to Agriculture and Natural Resource Management. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 3rd Edition. 454pp. )Book)
Reddy, K.N. and Singh, M. 1992. Germination and emergence of hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa). Weed Science, 40: 195–199. )Journal)
Roberts, H.A. and Lockett, P.M. 1978. Seed dormancy and field emergence in Solanum nigrum L. Weed Research, 18: 231-241. )Journal)
Saric, M., Bozic, D., Pavlovic, D., Elezovic, I. and Vrbnicanin, S. 2012. Temperature effects on common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) seed germination. Romanian Agricultural Research, 29: 389-393. )Journal)
Sathiyamoorty, P. and Nukamura, S. 1995. Effect of gibberlic acid and inorganic salts on breaking dormancy and enhancing germination of true potato seed. Seed Research, 23: 5-7. )Journal)
Singh, M. and Achhireddy, N.R. 1984. Germination and ecology of milkweedvine (Morrenia odorata). Weed Science, 32: 781–785. )Journal)
Soteres, J.K. and Murray, D.S. 1981. Germination and development of honeyvine milkweed (Ampelamus albidus) seeds. Weed Science, 29: 625-628.
Stoller, E.W. and Wax, L.M. 1974. Dormancy changes and fate of some annual weed seeds in the soil. Weed Science, 22: 151–155. )Journal)
Uremis, I., Arslan, M. and Sangun, M.K. 2009. Herbicidal activity of essential oils on the germination of some problem weeds. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 21: 3199-3210. )Journal)
Wilson, R.G. 1979. Germination and seedling development of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). Weed Science, 27: 146–151. )Journal)
Yousefi, A.R., Ebrahimi, M., Ghanbari, M. and Pouryosef, M. 2010. Predicting seedling emergence of Xanthium strumarium in two burial depths. Iranian Journal of Weed Science, 6: 57-65. (In Persian) )Journal)
Zimmerman, J.K. and Weis, I.M. 1983. Fruit size variation and its effects on germination and seedling growth in Xanthium strumarium. Canadian Journal of Botany, 61: 2309-2315. )Journal)