Effect of priming and osmotic stress on the germination and activity of hydrolytic and glyoxylate cycle enzymes of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) SC704 seed

Document Type : Research Paper


University of Mohaghegh Ardabili


This study was conducted as a factorial experiment to evaluate the effect of seed priming and osmotic stress on the activity ofhydrolytic and glyoxylate cycle enzymesin maize based on completely randomized design in  2012 at College of Agriculture, the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili. Treatments were four levels of osmotic stress originated from PEG 6000 (0, -3, -6 and -9 bar) and five levels of priming (Control, hydropriming, osmopriming, hormone priming and ascorbic acid) in three replications . The results showed that interaction of drought stress and priming was significant on all traits except of Germination Percentage and  isocitratelyase activity (only single effect of osmotic stress and priming was significant). The highest germination rate (17.556 seed day-1) observed in control drought. The highest activity of amylase, lipase and protease (4.43, 73.2 and 2071.3 unit mg-1 protein, respectively) observed in hormone priming and non-stress conditions. The lowest amylase activity (3.1 unit mg-1 protein) was related to osmo-priming and -9 bar drought while the lowest activity of lipase and protease (60.36 and 1949 unit mg-1 protein, respectively) observed in -9 bar drought in non-primed seeds. The highest activity of malate synthase (2.7 unit mg-1protein) observed in hormone priming and non-stress conditions, but the lowest activity (1.88 unit mg-1 protein) was related to -9 bar drought stress and non-primed seeds. Increase in the severity of stress decreased the germination rate and the activity of enzymes. Seed priming with gibberellic acid caused to resistance to drought conditions and prevention of decrease in the activity of hydrolytic and glyoxylate cycle enzymes in maize seeds


Abdulrahmani, B., GhasemiGolezani, K., Valizadeh, M., FeiziAsl, V. and Tavakkoli, A. 2012. Effect of seed priming on growth and yield of barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L) CV Abidar in rainfed conditions. Journal of Seed and Seedling Improvement, 27(27): 111- 129. (In Persian)(Journal)
Anonymous. 2010. International rules for seed testing. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). (Handbook)
Asgedom, H. and Becker, M. 2001. Effects of seed priming with different nutrient solutions on germination, seedling growth and weed competitiveness of cereals in Eritrea, in Proc. DeutscherTropentag University of Bonn and ATSAF, Margraf Publishers Press, Weickersheim. Pp: 282. (Book)
Asghari, M. 1992.  Effect of ethylene osmotic adjustement and growth axial tissue and cotyledons of sunflower in the drought stress. Agricultural Sciences and Technology Journal, 8: 137- 145. (In Persian)(Journal)
Ashraf, M. and Foolad, M.R. 2005. Pre-sowing seed treatment a shotgun approach to improve germination  growth and crop yield under saline and none-saline conditions. Advance Agronomy, 88: 223-271. (Journal)
Bagheri-Kazemabad, A. and Sarmadnia, Gh. 2007. Studying ability to use polyethylene glycol 6000 to study dryness in (Onobrychis Viciolis scoop) in plantlet stage. Agriculture Resources and Science, 5(1): 1-9. (In Persian)(Journal)
Basra, S.M.A., Ahmad, N., Khan, M.M., Iqbal, N. and Cheema, M.A. 2003. Assessment of cotton seed deterioration during accelerated ageing. Seed Science and Technology, 31: 531-540. (Journal)
Bradford, K.J. 1985. Seed priming improves germination and emergence of cantaloupe at low temperature. Horticultural Science, 20(3): 595. (Journal)
Bradford, K.J. 1986. Manipulation of seed water relation via osmotic priming to improve germination under stress conditions. Horticultural Science, 21:1105-1111. (Journal)
Cooper, T.G.D. and Beevers, H. 1969. Mitochondria and glyoxysomes from castor bean endosperm: enzyme constituents and catalytic capacity. Journal of Biological Chemmistry, 244: 3507–3513. (Journal)
Cui, Y.Y., Pandey, D.M., Hahn, E.J. and Paek, K.Y. 2004. Effect of drought on physiological aspects of Crassulacean acid metabolism in Doritaenopsis. Plant Science, 167: 1219-1226. (Journal)
Demir Kaya, M., Games, O., Atak, M., Cikili, Y. and Kolsarici, O. 2006. Seed treatment to overcome salt and drough stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). European Journal of Agronomy, 24: 291-295. (Journal)
Dodd, G.L. and Danovan, L.A. 1999. Water potential and ion effects on germination and seedling growth of cold deserts shrubs. American Journal of Botany, 86(1): 146-153. (Journal)
Duman, I. 2006. Effect of seed priming with PEG and K3PO4 on germination and seedling growth in lettuce. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9(5): 923- 928. (Journal)
Eastmond, P.J. and Graham, L.A. 2001. Re-examining the role of the glyoxylate cycle in oilseeds. Trends in Plant Science, 6(2): 72-77. (Journal)
Eisvand, H.R., TavakkolAfshari, R., Sharifzadeh, F., MadahArefi, H. and Hesamzade-Hejazi, M. 2008. Improving physiological quality of aged Wheat Grass seed by using hormonal priming under water stress and non-stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Scienes, 39: 53-65. (In Persian)(Journal)
Ellis, R.H. and Roberts, E.H. 1981. The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 9: 377-409. (Journal)
F.A.O. Production year book. 2012. Food and Aricultural organization of united Nation, Rome, Italy. 51: Pp 209. (Handbook)
Farooq, M., Basra, S.M. and Ahmad, A.N. 2007. Imporoving the performance of transplanted rice by seed priming. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 51:129-137. (Journal)
Fateh, H., Siosemarde, A. and Karimpor, M. 2011. The effects of seed priming and planting date on activities of antioxidant enzymes and yield of pea in rainfed conditions. Technology of Plant Production, 10(2): 1-16. (In Persian)(Journal)
Galshadi, A., Ansari, R., Askari, S., Sarafzadegan, N. and Bashtam, M. 2002. Information, belief and performance in relation to herbal medicines at Esfahan city. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 28: 2-21. (In Persian)(Journal)
GhasemiGolezani, K., Sheikhzadeh Mosaddegh, P. and Valizadeh, M. 2010. Effects of seed pretreatment on germination, emergence and yield of pea. Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Knowledge, 19(1): 49-58. (In Persian)(Journal)
Hashemi Dezfoli, A., Kouchaki, A. and Bannayan Avval, M. 1996. Increase of crop yield. First edition, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publications (Translation). (In Persian)(Book)
Holwerda, B.C. and Rogers, J.C. 1992. Purification and characterization of aleurain. Journal of Plant Physiology, 99: 848-855. (Journal)
Huang, A.H.C. 1985. Lipid bodies, 1. In: Linskins HF & Jackson F (eds). Modern Methods of Plant Analysis. Berlin: Springer Verla, P: 145-151. (Book)
International Seed Testing Association. 2008. International rules for seed testing (supplement). Seed Science and Technology, 27: 1-333. (Handbook)
Jajermi, V. 2009. Effect of water stress on germination indices in seven wheat cultivar. World Academy Science Engineering and Technology, 49: 105-106. (Journal)
Jeng, T.L. and Sung, J.M. 1994. Hydration effect on lipid peroxidation and peroxide-scavenging enzyme activity of artificially aged peanut seed. Seed Science and Technology, 22: 531-539. (Journal)
Kornberg, H.L. and Beevers, H. 1957. A mechanism of conversion of fat to carbohydrate in castor beans. Nature, 180: 35. (Journal)
Kornberg, H.L. and Krebs, H.A. 1957. Synthesis of cell constituents from C2-units by a modified tri-carboxylic acid cycle. Nature, 179: 988–991.
Kouchaki, A. and Sarmadnia, G. 2010. Physiology of crop plants. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publications. Fifteenth edition, 400p. (In Persian)(Book)
MacGregor, A.W. 1983. Cereal alpha-amylases: Synthesis and action pattern. In: Seed Proteins (J. Daussant; J. Mosse and J. Vaughan, eds.). Annual Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe, 20: 1-34. Academic Press, London. (Book)
Malik, C.P., Gupta, K. and Sharma, S. 1986. Effect of water stress on germination and seedling metabolism of gram (Cicer arietinum L.). Acta Agronemica Hungarica, 35: 11-16. (Journal)
McDonald, M.B. 2000. Seed priming. (eds. M. Black and J. D. Bewley). Sheffield Academic Press, PP: 287-325. (Book)
McDonald, M.B. 1999. Seed deterioration: Physiology, repair and assessment. Seed Science and Technology, 27: 177-273. (Journal)
Michel, B.E. and Kaufmann, M.R.  1973. The osmotic potential of polyethylene glycol 6000. Plant Physiology, 51: 914-916. (Journal)
Moaveni, P. and Changizi, M. 2008. Principles of crop physiology in dry and saline conditions. Scientific publisher’s Islamic Azad University, Arac Branch, Pp: 429. (In Persian)(Book)
Mohseni, A., Rezaie Sokhtabandani, R. and Ramazani, M. 2014. The effects of priming on phenology and seed germination characteristics of single cross maize hybrids 704 and 640 under summer delayed planting in Mazandaran. Journal of Seed Science and Technology, 2(1): 25- 38. (In Persian)(Journal)
Moayedi Shahraki, E., Ebrahimi, E., Esmaili, A. and Mahmoodi, S. 2009. Tolerance evaluation of forage garden (Vicia ervilia L.) plant to salinity stress in early growth stages. The first National Conference of Environmental Stresses in Agricultural Science. The University of Birjand, Iran. 28- 29 Jan: 345-349. (In Persian with Summary)(Conference)
Parera, C. and Cantliffe, D. 1994. Dehydration rate after solid matrix alters seed performance of shrunken-2 corn. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 119: 629 - 35. (Journal)
Perisco, J.T., Baptista, C.R. and Pinherio, E.J.L. 1992. Hydration, dehydration seed pretreatment and its effects on seed germination under water stress. Revista Brasileira de Botânica, 15: 31-35. (Journal)
Powell, A.A. 1998. Seed improvement by selection and invigoration. Scientia Agricola Piracicaba, 55: 126-133. (Journal)
Ramazani, M., Taghvaei, M., Masoudi, M., Riahi, A. and Behbahani, N. 2009. The evaluation of drought and salinity effects on germination and seedling growth caper (Capparis spinosa L.). Journal of Rangeland, 2(4): 411- 420. (In Persian with English Summary)(Journal)
Ranaldi, F., Vanni, P. and Giachetti, E. 2000. Multisite inhibition of Pinus pinea isocitratelyase by phosphate. Plant Physiology, 124: 1131-1138. (Journal)
Rezayi, M., Sedghi, M. and SeyedSharifi, R. 2013. Effect of salinity and types of priming on the growth characteristics of medicinal pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L). Proceeding of The conventional and organic Farming. Part 2, Medicinal plants and their use in conventional farming, Pp: 69-73. (In Persian)(Handbook)
Sarmadnia, G. 1996. Seed technology. Publications of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Translation), Pp: 288. (In Persian)(Book)
Sedghi, M., Khomari, S. and Amanpour-Balaneji, B. 2011. Effect of Seed Vigor and Hormone Priming on Glyoxylate Cycle Enzymes Activity in Persian Silk Tree (Albizia julibrissin Durazz.). World Applied Science Journal, 13(3): 541-544. (Journal)
Sedghi, M. 2016. Plant biochemistry. Publications of The University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, 420 p. (Book)
Shah, S.H., Ahmad, I. and Samiulla, H. 2006. Effect of gibberellic acid spray on growth, nutrient uptake and yield attributes during various growth stage of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 5(5): 881-884. (Journal)
Sheikh NavazJahed, P., Sedghi, M. and SeyedSharifi, R. 2014. Effect of priming on the germination and activity of the antioxidant enzyme in stevia under hormonal conditions. Proceeding of The Conventional and Organic Farming, University of Mohagheghe Ardabili. Pp: 1- 4. (In Persian) (Conference)
Soltani, E., Akram-Ghaderi, F. and Maemar, H. 2008. The effect of priming on germination components and seedling growth of cotton seeds under drought. Journal of Invitro evaluation of osmotic stress tolerance using a novel root recovery assay, Plant Cell, 95(1): 101-106. (Journal)
Varier, A., Vari, A.K. and Dadlani, M. 2010. The subcellular basis of seed priming. Current Science, 99: 450-456. (Journal)
Windauer, L., Altuna, A. and Benech-Arnold, R. 2007. Hydrotime analysis of hyand Products, 25: 70-74. (Journal)