Investigation the emergence correlation of Hypericum perforatum L. with germination and amylase enzyme activity under different seed treatments

Document Type : Research Paper


University of Shahre Kord


Because of small and low quality seeds, St Johns wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) have not favorable establishment in the field. In these study effects of different seed enhancement treatments were applied on the seeds and relationship of emergence with germination characteristics and amylase activity were evaluated. A factorial experiment was conducted in randomized ccompletely design with four replications. Osmopriming with Polyethylene glycol 6000 in five levels (0, -3, -6, -9 and -12 bar) were conducted as first factor and application of Gibberellic acid at four concentration (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) as second factor. Analysis of variance showed that polyethylene glycol, gibberellin and their interaction had significant effects on germination and emergence of St Johns wort seeds. Continuous application of PEG and GA had most favorable effect on germination, emergence, vigor and Amylase activity compared to the control and separate application of them. Concentration of 1000 ppm of gibberellin in -12 bar of osmotic potential caused to highest germination (91.5 %), emergence (80.5 %), seed vigor (32.08) and amylase activity (25.21 starch breakage percentage). While the control showed lowest performance in all measured traits. Correlation analysis showed a positive and significant correlation between seedling emergence of and germination percentage (r=0.89**), seed vigor (r=0.95**) and amylase activity (r=0.92**) of St Johns wort seeds. Based on the results, it is seems that application of priming techniques improve establishment of St Johns wort seeds via increasing germination, seed vigor and amylase activity.


Aboutalebian, M.A., Sharifzadeh, F., Jahansuz, M.R., Ahmadi, A. and Naghavi, M.R. 2008. The effect of seed priming on germination, stand establishment and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in three different climates of Iran. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 39(1): 145-154. (In Persian)(Journal)
Ashraf, M. and Foolad, M.R. 2005. Pre-sowing seed treatment-Ashotgun approach to improve germination, plant growth, and crop yield under saline and non saline conditions. Advances in Agronomy, 88: 223-265. (Journal)
Bayat, P., Ghobadi, M., Gobadi, M.E. and Mohamadi, G. 2016. Evaluation of seed germination standard test ability in laboratory conditions to predict the emergence and establishment of seedling of (Cicer arietinum L.) in field. Iranian Journal of Seed Sciences and Technology, 5(1): 27-38. (In Persian)(Journal)
Bewley, J.D., Bradford, K., Hilhorst, H. and Nonogaki, H. 2013. Seeds: physiology of development, germination and dormancy. Springer-Verlag New York, 392p. (Book)
Cambell, M.H. 1985. Germination, emergence and seedling growth of Hypericum perforatum L. Weed Research, 25: 259-266. (Journal)
Chen, S.C. and Chang, J.L. 1972. Does gibberellic acid stimulate seed germination via amylase synthesis? Plant Physiology, 49: 441-442. (Journal)
Crockett, S. 2010. Essential oil and volatile components of the genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae). Natural Product Communications, 5(9): 1493-506. (Journal)
Dadrasi, V. and Aboutalebian, M.A. 2015. Effect of seed priming on morphological traits, seed protein and water use efficiency of two mid maturing maize hybrids in farm conditions. Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh and Sazandegi), 107: 82-90. (In Persian)(Journal)
Dahal, P., Bradrord, K.I. and Jones, R.A. 1990. Effect of priming and endosperm integrity on seed germination rate of tomato genotypes. 11. Germination at reduced water potential. Journal of Experimental Botany, 41: 1441-1453. (Journal)
Egli, D.B. and Rucker, M. 2012. Seed vigor and the uniformity of emergence of corn seedlings. Crop Science Society of America, 52(6): 2774-2782. (Journal)
Eisvand, H.R., Alizadeh, M.A. and Fekri, A. 2010. How hormonal priming of aged and non aged seeds of bromgrass affects seedling physiological characters. Journal of New Seeds, 11: 52-64. (Journal)
Eisvand, H.R., Sharafi, A. and Ismaeili, A. 2013. Effects of hydro and osmopriming in different temperatures on germination and seedling growth of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 29(2): 343-357. (In Persian)(Journal)
Farooq, S. and Azam, F. 2006. The use of cell membrane stability (CMS) technique to screen for salt tolerance wheat varieties. Journal of Plant Physiology, 163: 629-637. (Journal)
Haigh, A.M. and Barlow, E.W.R. 1987. Germination and priming of tomato, carrot, onion, and sorghum seeds in a range of osmotica. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 112: 202-208. (Journal)
Jabbari, R., Amini Dehaghi, M., Ganji Arjenaki, F.  and Agahi, K. 2011. How duration and methods of priming may affect the germination of cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum L.). 4: 23-30. (In Persian) (Journal)
Jisha, K.C., Vijayakumari, K. and Puthur, T. 2013. Seed priming for abiotic stress tolerance: an overview. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35: 1381-1396. (Journal)
Makizadeh Tafti, M., Farhoodi, R. and Rastifar, M. 2012. The effect of osmopriming on germination of Melissa officinalis L. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 2(4): 573-586. (In Persian)(Journal)
Mansouri, B. and Aboutalebian, M.A. 2013. Effect of on-farm seed priming and supplementary irrigation on emergence rate, yield and yield components of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars. Journal of Plant Production, 20(2): 179-196. (In Persian)(Journal)
Mello, A.M., Streck, N.A., Blankenship, E.E. and Paparozzi, E.T. 2009. Gibberellic Acid Promotes Seed Germination in Penstemon digitalis cv. Husker Red. Horticulture Science, 44(3): 870-873. (Journal)
Michel, B.E. and Kaufmann, M.R. 1973. The Osmotic Potential of Polyethylene Glycol 6000. Plant Physiology, 51: 914-916. (Journal)
Mirshekari, B. 2015. Effect of hormonal and physical priming on improvement of seed germination and seedling vigor of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Technology, 3(2): 163-171. (In Persian)(Journal)
Musavi, S.R., Ahmadi, J. and Sefidkan, F. 2012. Optimization of seed dormancy to increase seed germination Hypericum perforatum L. The 12th Congress of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, 14 to 16 September. Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. (In Persian)(Conference)
Naderi_darbaghshahi, M. 2013. Do correlation coefficient and regression models able to describe relationship between laboratory seed vigour tests and field seed emergence of crops. Journal of Novel Applied Sciences, 2(12): 678-682. (Journal)
Nedkov, N. 2007. Research on the Effect of Pre-sowing Treatment on Seed Germination of Hypericum perforatum L. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 13: 31-37. (Journal)
Pasandideh, H., Seyed Sharifi, R., Hamidi, A., Mobasser, S. and Sedaghi, M. 2014. Relationship of seed germination and vigour indices of commercial soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Cultivars with seedling emergence in field. Iranian Journal of Seed Sciences and Research, 1(1): 29-50. (In Persian)(Journal)
Perez-Garcia, F., Huertas, M., Mora, E., Pena, B., Varela, F. and Gonza´ lezBenito, M.E. 2006. Hypericum perforatum L. seed germination: interpopulation variation and effect of light, temperature, presowing treatments and seed desiccation. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 53: 1187-1198. (Journal)
Powel, A.A. 1998. Seed improvement by selection and invigoration. Scientia Agricola, 55: 126-133. (Journal)
Rahmanpur, A., Majda, A. and Chalbian, F. 2007. The effect of hormonal and mechanical treatments on breaking dormancy of seeds of medicinal plants Eremurus olgae Regel. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 23: 111-120. (In Persian)(Journal)
Roberts, J. and White-House, D.G. 1976. Practical plant physiology. New York Sciences, 25: 402-407. (Journal)
Schmited, L. 2007. Tropical forest seed. Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, NewYork. (Book)
Shabbier, I., Shakir, M., Ayub, M., Tahir, M., Tanveer, A., Shahbaz, M. and Hussain, M. 2013. Effect of seed priming agents on growth, yield and oil contents of fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill). Advance in Agriculture and Biology, 1(3): 58-62. (Journal)
Shahsavand, K., Tavakol Afshar, R. and Chaiahi, M. 2009.  The effect of osmopriming on germination characteristics of four plant species seed under drought stress. The Journal of Range, 3(1): 479-490. (In Persian)(Journal)
Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. 2010. Plant Physiology. 5th ed Sinauer Associates Inc. Publishers, Massachusetts. (Book)
Varasteh, K.N., Babaei, A. and Abdoli, M. 2015. The effect of different sodium hypochlorite concentrations on seed germination of Dracocephalum Moldavica L. Austin Journal of Plant Biology, 1(2): 1-3. (Journal)
Vieira, A.R., Vieira, M.G.C., Fraga, A.C., Oliveira, J.A. and Santos, C.D. 2002. Action of gibberellic acid (GA3) on dormancy and activity of a-amylase in rice seeds. Revista Brasileira de Sementes, 24 (2): 43-48. (Journal)
Wang, M., Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S. and Van Duijn, B. 1995. Modulation of germination of embryos isolated from dormant and nondormant barley grains by manipulation of endogenous abscisic acid. Planta, 195: 586-592. (Journal)