Evaluation of the effect of NaCl salt stress on some growth traits and antioxidant enzymes in two chicory (Cichorium intybus) seed ecotypes

Document Type : Research Paper



In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress on seed germination, early growth and antioxidant enzymes activity of Chicory ecotypes (Cichorium intybus) a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with four replications at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University in 2013. The treatments were included five salinity levels [tap water (0.62), 3, 6, 9, 12 dS m-1] of sodium chloride and chicory ecotypes (Black and White). The results showed that germination rate and germination percentage were decreased in both ecotypes with increment of salinity severity. In both ecotypes, the highest germination (100%) was observed in tap water and 3 dS m-1 and the lowest germination (37%) was obtained at 12 dS m-1. The lowest root (14.2 mm) and shoot length (12.45mm) was obtained at 12 dS m-1 respectively. The effect of salt stress on antioxidant enzyme activity was significant, so that those were enhanced with increment of salt stress; however, increasing in salinity level from 9 to 12 dS m-1 was associated with reduction in peroxidase activity in Black ecotype. The results of this study revealed that the White species was more affected by increasing in salt concentration, so it had more sensitivity salt stress. The salt tolerance also had a positive relationship with the antioxidant enzymes activities in Black ecotype, especially for catalase.


Almansouri, M., Kinet, J.M. and Lutts, S. 2001. Effect of salt and osmotic stress on germination in durum wheat (Triticum aestivum Desf.). Plant and Soil, 231: 243-254. (Journal)
Beauchamp, C. and Fridorich, I. 1971. Superoxide dismutase improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Analytical Biochemistry, 44: 276-287. (Journal)
نتتsola arbuscula,Salsola yazdiana,Salsola abarghuensis(ررسی اثر تنش شوری برجوانه زنی و بنیه بذر در سه اکوتیپ سالسولا( ایران.اورزیBor, M., Azdemir, F. and Turkan, I. 2003. The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in leaves of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. and wild beet Beta maritima L. Plant Science Research, 164: 77-84. (Journal)
Broomand-Rezazadeh, G. and Kucheki, A. 2005. Germination response of Ajowan, Fennel and Dill to osmotic potential of sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol 6000 in different temperature regimes. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3: 207-217. (In Persian) (Journal)
chchcha Chance, B. and Maehly, A.C. 1955. Assay of catalase and peroxidase methods in enzymology, 11: 764: 791. (Handbook)
Dehghani, I. and  Mostajeran, A. 2011. Effect of salinity on vegetative growth, antioxidant and defensive enzymes in ginger (Zingber officinale Roscoe.).Journal of Medicinal Plants, 1: 1-11. (In Persian) (Journal)
Demiral, T. and Turkan, I. 2005. Comparative lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense systems and proline content in roots of two rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 53: 247–257. (Journal)
Dionisio-Sese, M.L. and Tobita, S. 1998. Antioxidant responses of rice seedlings to salinity stress. Plant Science, 35: 11-19. (Journal)
Dubey, R.S. 1999. Protein synthesis by plants under stressful conditions. In: Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress, ed. Pessarakli, M. pp. 153-167. New York. Marcel Dekker, USA. (Book)
Gao, S., Ouyang, C., Wang, S., Xu, Y., Tang, L. and Chen, F. 2008.  Effect of salt stress on growth, antioxidant enzyme in phenylalanine amonia-lyase activities in Jatropha curcas L. seedlings. Plant, Soil and Environment, 9: 374–381. (Journal)
Huang, J. and Redmann, R.E .1995. Salt tolerance of Hordeum and Brassica species during germination and early seedling growth. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 75: 815-819. (Journal)
International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). 1995. Handbook of Vigor test methods. International Seed Testing Association, Zurich, Switzerland. (Handbook)
International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). 2002. ISTA News Bulletin No. 124, Zurich, Switzerland. (Handbook)
Javid, M.G., Sorooshzadeh, A., Moradi, F., Modarres Sanavy, S., Allahdadi, I. 2011. The role of phytohormones in alleviating salt stress in crop plants. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5: 726–734. (Journal)
Mehra, V., Tripathi, J. and Powell, A.A. 2003. Aerated hydration treatment improves the response of Brassica juncea and Brassica campestris seeds to stress during germination. Seed Science and Technology,14: 57-70. (Journal)
Mirmohammadi Maibody, A.M. and Qara Yazy, B. 2002. Salt stress and physiological aspects of plant breeding. Publishing Centre, University of Technology. (Book)
Moon, A.A., Bouw, G., Prinsen, E., Van Montagu, M. and Straeten, D. 1995. Molecular and physiological responses to abscisic acid and salt in roots of salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant Indian Rice varieties. Plant Physiology, 107: 117-186. (Journal)
Mosaddegh, M., Naghibi, F., Moazzeni, H., Pirani, F. and Esmaeili, S. 2012. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal remedies traditionally used in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad province of Iran. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 141: 80–95. (Journal)
Nakano, Y. and Asada, K. 1981. Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant and Cell Physiology, 22: 867-880. (Journal)
Niu, X., Bressan, R.A., Hasegawa, P.M. and Pardo, J.M. 1995. Ionhomeostasia in NaCl stress environment. Plant Physiology, 109: 735-742. (Journal)
Noctor, G. and Foyer, C. 1998. Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Annual Reviews of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 49: 249-279. (Journal)
Pirasteh Anoshe, H., Sadeghi, H. and Emam, Y.  2011. Chemical priming with urea and KNO3 enhances maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) seed viability under abiotic stress. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, 14: 289-295. (Journal)
Rogers, M.E. and Nobel, C.C. 1991. On establishment and growth of blansa clover. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 42: 847-857. (Journal)
Sadeghi, H. and Khaef, N. 2011. Priming-induced metabolic changes in three annual medic species improve germination and early growth under drought and salt stress conditions. Genetics and Plant Physiology, 1: 186-198. (Journal)
Sadeghi, H. and Khani, K. 2012. Effects of different drought and salinity stress levels on some morphological characteristics and proline content of annual burr medics (M. polymorpha L.). Iranian Journal of Dryland Reaearch, 1: 1-13. (In Persian) (Journal)
Sadeghi, H. and Nazemosadat, S. 2011. Effects of different levels of sodium chloride and photosynthetic photon flux density on some physiological traits in two wheat cultivars. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 29: 6326-6333. (Journal)
Tavakkol-Afshari, R. and Majnoun-Hossini, N. 2002. Responses of wheat and canola cultivars simulated drought conditions. Abstracts of International Conference on Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture for Dry Areas for 3rd Millennium. China. September 16-19, p: 24-25. (Conference)
Tobe, K., Li, X.M. and Omasa, K. 2004. Effects of five different salts on seed germination and seedling growth of Haloxylonam modendron (Chenopodiaceae). Seed Science Research, 14: 345-353. (Journal)