Estimation of germination cardinal temperature in cold and tropical Vetch

Document Type : Research Paper



Cold and tropical Vetch (Vicia villosa and Vicia pannonica)are an important plants which did not do any experiment about quantification of them germination reaction to temperature. Thus, a CRD experiment performed in seed research laboratory of Urmia University with four replications which temperature treatment were eight levels of temperature as: 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 º C. Results revealed that temperature had a significant effects on germination rate and it’s percent and segmented model estimated greatly cardinal temperature (base, optimum and ceiling temperatures). Germination rate of Vicia. Pannonica in equal and less than -7.6 and equal and higher than 40.76 ºC stopped, though this thermal range for V.  villosa was equal and less than -3.8 and equal and higher than 41.2 º  C, respectively. R max were 0.027 and 0.033 h-1 for V. pannonica and V. villosa respectively. Also, results emphasized that both of Vicia species can be geminate in less than zero temperature and in V. Pannonica the base temperature was fewer than V. villosa, so, germination percent and its rate increased by upgrading in temperature to optimum temperature. Therefore, both Vicia species can geminate and emergence in  extended range of environmental thermal from -7.6 to 40.76 º C for V. Pannonica and -3.8 to 41.2 º  C in V.  villosa and thus recognized as a forage crop with acceptable production for various season and climate.


Aasim, M., Sahin-Dermirbag, N., Khawar, K.M., Kendir, H. and Ozcan, S. 2011. Direct axillary shoot regeneration from the mature seed explant of the hairy vetch, Archive Biotechnology Science Belgrade, 63(3): 757-762. (Journal)
Ahmadi, M., Kamkar, B., Soltani, A. and Zeinali, E. 2010. Evaluation of non-linear regression models to predict stem elongation rate of wheat (Tajan cultivar) in response to temperature and photoperiod. Electronic Journal of Crop Production, 2(4): 39-54. (In Persian) (Journal)
Balendari, A., Rezwani-Moghaddam, P. and Nasiri Mahallati, M. 2011. Determination of cardinal temperature of seed germination of Cichorium pumilium Jacq. The second international conference of seed sciences and technology, Azad university of Mashhad. (In Persian) (Journal)
Bannayan, M., Nadjafi, F., Rastgoo, M. and Tabrizi, L. 2006. Germination properties of some wild medicinal plants from Iran. Journal of Seed Technology, 28: 80-86. (Journal)
Bradfoed, K.J. and Still, D.W. 2002. Applications of hydrotime analysis in seed testing. Journal of Seed Technology, 26: 74-85. (Journal)
Cho, Y.Y., Lee, Y.B., Oh, M.M. and Son, J.E. 2012. Application of quadratic models for establishment of adequate temperature ranges in germination of various Hot Pepper cultivars. Horticulture Environment Biotechnology, 53(3): 222-227. (Journal)
Ellis, R.H., Simon, G. and Covell, S. 1987. The influence of temperature on seed germination rate in grain Legumes. III. A Comparison of five faba bean genotypes at constant temperatures using a new screening method. Journal of Experimental Botany, 38: 1033-1043. (Journal)
Forcella, F., Benech Arnold, R.L. Sanches, R. and Ghersa, C.M. 2000. Modeling seeding emergence. Filed Crop Research, 67:123-139. (Journal)
Ghaderi-Far, F., Soltani, A. and Sadeghipour, H.R. 2008. Cardinal temperatures of germination medicinal pumokin, borago and black cumin. Asian Journal of Plant Science, 7(6): 574-578. (Journal)
Gholami-Tilebeni H., Kord-Firouzjaei, G.H. and Zeinali, E. 2011. Determination of cardinal temperatures of seed germination in rice cultivars. Journal of Seed Sciences and Technology, 1(1): 41-52. (In Persian) (Journal)
Hardegree, S. 2006. Predicting germination response to temperature. I. Cardinal temperature models and subpopulation-specific regression. Annals Botany, 97: 1115-1125. (Journal)
Hardegree, S.P. and Winstral, A.H. 2006. Predicting germination response to temperature. II. Three dimensional Regression, statistical gridding and iterative-probit optimization using measured and interpolated subpopulation data. Annals Botany, 98: 403-410. (Journal)
Kamkar, B., Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati M. and Rezvani Moghaddam P. 2006. Cardinal temperatures for germination in three millet species (Panicum miliaceum, Pennisetum glaucum and Setaria italica). Asian Journal of Plant Science, 5: 316-319. (Journal)
Lopez, O.A., Barney, B.L., Shafii, B. and Price, W.J. 2008. Modeling the effects of temperature and gibberellic acid concentration on red huckleberry seed germination. Horticulture Science, 43: 223-228. (Journal)
Mahmoodi, A., Soltani, E. and Barani, H. 2008. Germination response to temperature in snail medic (Medicago sativa L.). Electronic Journal of Crop Production, 1: 54-63. (Journal)
Mikic, A., Mihailovic, V., Hauptvoel, P., Cupina, B., Petrovic, M., Krestic, M., Jovicic, D., Milosevic. B. and Hauptvogel, R. 2009. Wild population of vetches as forage and green manure crops for temperate regions. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 48: 265. (Journal)
Pourreza, J. and Bahrani, A. 2012. Estimating cardinal temperatures of Milk thistle seed germination. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and environmental Sciences, 12(8): 1030-1034. (Journal)
Ramin, A.A. 1997. The influence of temperature on germination of taree Irani (Allium ampeloprasum L. spp. iranicum W.). Seed Science and Technology, 25: 419-426. (Journal)
Sabouri, H., Sabouri, A. and Dadras, A.R. 2011. Modeling of reaction of germination rate to temperature in different cultivars of rice. Grass Researches Journal, 2(2): 123-135. (In Persian) (Journal)
Sabouri-Rad, S., Kafi, M., Nezami, A. and Banayan-Avval, M. 2011. Estimation of minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures of Kochia Scoparia using of beta five parametric model. Journal of Agroecology, 3(2): 191-197. (In Persian) (Journal)
SAS Institute Inc., 2001. SAS user’ guide: Statics, Version 9, 1 editions, SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, N.C.
Soltani, A., Galeshi, S., Zeinali, E. and Latifi, N. 2002. Germination, seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of chickpea as affected by salinity and seed size. Seed Science and Technology, 29: 653-662. (Journal)
Soltani, A. and Maddah-Yazdi, V. 2010. Simple, applied programs for education and research in agronomy. Niak Press. 80pp. (In Persian) (Book)
Soltani, A., Robertson, M.J., Torabi, B., Yousefi-Daz, M. and Sarparast, R. 2006. Modeling seedling emergence in chickpea as affected by temperature and sowing depth. Agriculture Forestry Meteorology, 138: 156-167. (Journal)
Tabrizi, L., Koocheki, A., Nasiri Mahalati, M. and Rezvani, P. 2007. Germination behavior of cultivated and natural stand seeds of Khorasan thyme (Thymus transcaspicus Klokov) with application of regression models. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 5: 249-257. (In Persian) (Journal)
Tabrizi, L., Nasiri Mahalati, M. and Koocheki, A. 2004. Assessment of minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures of seed germination of psilium. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 5: 249-257. (In Persian) (Journal)
Yin, X. 1996. Quantifying the effects of temperature and photoperiod on phonological development to flowering in rice. Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen. Agricultural University. The Netherland. 173 pp. (Book)
Zeinali, E., Soltani, A., Galeshi, S. and Sadati, J. 2010. Cardinal temperatures, reaction to temperature and thermal tolerance range of seed germination of wheat cultivars, Electronic Journal of Crop Production, 3(3): 23-42. (In Persian) (Journal)